Schools are generally not reapplicant unfriendly, as there's a healthy minority of students at any top b-school that were reapplicants.
At best, it's a slight positive and at worst, it's neutral (i.e. no different than as a first time applicant).
Focus on applying to schools that you really want to go to instead of which seem more reapplicant friendly than others. You've gone through the process already, and there's only so many top schools out there, so I'm sure you can figure out on your own which ones you really want to go to (I can't tell you that since it's a matter of personal preference and taste).
Your 2nd GMAT is fine; no need to retake it again.
Without seeing your applications, it's hard to say what you need to address. However, given what you wrote, my hunch is that you probably got dinged for many of the same reasons others got dinged as well: there was nothing seriously wrong with you, but that you simply blended in. In other words, there's a lot of folks of a similar caliber as you and it really comes down to whether you were able to somehow get the adcom to see you as an individual.
So the short answer is to write stronger essays and to do better interviews this time around.
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