I would think your chances are much better at the European programs than at Columbia, especially because CBS is not the easiest place to apply when you are switching functions in your career. You would need to have A) a bulletproof explanation for why you are applying so late, B) a feasible entry point into banking post-MBA (ie, your own network and contacts that will combine with an MBA from Columbia to land you the job), and C) an alternate career path mapped out that more directly uses the skills you already have. All told, it's a tough task that is only magnified by the fact that CBS doesn't allow for a fresh reapplication in the fall should it not work you - all they let you do is submit a reapplicant essay.
The schools in Europe have often been far more accommodating of late arriving applicants, although the same scrutiny for job placement will be in place. You are going to need to show the schools what you will later show recruiters - that being what skills and experiences you have that join with an MBA to make you an attractive candidate for a finance job.
I would strongly consider Oxford and Cambridge as well, especially if you have a strong track record in community activism and involvement.
I hope this helps.
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