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Psychological research indicates that college hockey and

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Psychological research indicates that college hockey and [#permalink] New post 30 Mar 2010, 11:01
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E

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Psychological research indicates that college hockey and football players are more quickly moved to hostility and aggression than are college athletes in noncontact sports such as swimming. But the researchers’ conclusion—that contact sports encourage and teach participants to be hostile and aggressive—is untenable. The football and hockey players were probably more hostile and aggressive to start with than the swimmers.

Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion drawn by the psychological researchers?

(A) The football and hockey players became more hostile and aggressive during the season and remained so during the off-season, whereas there was no increase in aggressiveness among the swimmers.
(B) The football and hockey players, but not the swimmers, were aware at the start of the experiment that they were being tested for aggressiveness.
(C) The same psychological research indicated that the football and hockey players had a great respect for cooperation and team play, whereas the swimmers were most concerned with excelling as individual competitors.
(D) The research studies were designed to include no college athletes who participated in both contact and noncontact sports.
(E) Throughout the United States, more incidents of fan violence occur at baseball games than occur at hockey or football games.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by ankurgupta03 on 10 Apr 2014, 08:22, edited 1 time in total.
added the OA
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Re: CR - college hockey and football players [#permalink] New post 31 Mar 2010, 11:05
seekmba wrote:
Psychological research indicates that college hockey and football players are more quickly moved to hostility and aggression than are college athletes in noncontact sports such as swimming. But the researchers’ conclusion—that contact sports encourage and teach participants to be hostile and aggressive—is untenable. The football and hockey players were probably more hostile and aggressive to start with than the swimmers.

Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion drawn by the psychological researchers?

(A) The football and hockey players became more hostile and aggressive during the season and remained so during the off-season, whereas there was no increase in aggressiveness among the swimmers.
(B) The football and hockey players, but not the swimmers, were aware at the start of the experiment that they were being tested for aggressiveness.
(C) The same psychological research indicated that the football and hockey players had a great respect for cooperation and team play, whereas the swimmers were most concerned with excelling as individual competitors.
(D) The research studies were designed to include no college athletes who participated in both contact and noncontact sports.
(E) Throughout the United States, more incidents of fan violence occur at baseball games than occur at hockey or football games.


I think the answer is C.

The first thing to do here is to be sure which conclusion we need to strengthen. In this case we need to strengthen the researcher's conslusion, meaning that we weaken the narrator's conclusion.
According to the researcher's conclusion contact sports encourage participants to be hostile and aggressive.
We need to show some form of support for this.
If we were able to show that contact sports encourages other inter player emotional behaviour (teamwork/coordination/etc)it would strengthen the conclusion.
Answer C shows that players of contact sports showed greater inter player relations like cooperation and team play whereas non-contact sports players were concerned with individual excellence.
This serves to strengthen the conclusion of the researches.

OA?
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Re: CR - college hockey and football players [#permalink] New post 31 Mar 2010, 11:31
I had the same reasoning and picked (C)

but OA is (A)
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Re: CR - college hockey and football players [#permalink] New post 31 Mar 2010, 11:40
I went with (A). We're asked to strenghthen the psychologist's conclusion, which is some sport will prompt aggressiveness while other sports don't.

(A) shows that football and hockey does prompt that agressiveness since the players remained aggressive even after the season.

(C) talks about the respect that players have for teamplay and cooperation; this, to me, is irrelanvant in terms of how we can strenghthen the conclusion made by the psychologists.
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Re: CR - college hockey and football players [#permalink] New post 31 Mar 2010, 19:25
bakfed wrote:
I went with (A). We're asked to strenghthen the psychologist's conclusion, which is some sport will prompt aggressiveness while other sports don't.

(A) shows that football and hockey does prompt that agressiveness since the players remained aggressive even after the season.

(C) talks about the respect that players have for teamplay and cooperation; this, to me, is irrelanvant in terms of how we can strenghthen the conclusion made by the psychologists.


A speaks of the football and hockey players getting aggressive during the season and continuing the same behaviour off season. Couldn't this show that aggression is not really a result of contact sports?
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Re: CR - college hockey and football players [#permalink] New post 01 Apr 2010, 10:16
IMO A

It say that football and hockey players are aggressive in nature from the begin. One cannot be trained to be aggressive
It clearly strengthen the conclusion (which says the same thing)
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Re: CR - college hockey and football players [#permalink] New post 01 Apr 2010, 11:13
sidhu4u wrote:
bakfed wrote:
I went with (A). We're asked to strenghthen the psychologist's conclusion, which is some sport will prompt aggressiveness while other sports don't.

(A) shows that football and hockey does prompt that agressiveness since the players remained aggressive even after the season.

(C) talks about the respect that players have for teamplay and cooperation; this, to me, is irrelanvant in terms of how we can strenghthen the conclusion made by the psychologists.


A speaks of the football and hockey players getting aggressive during the season and continuing the same behaviour off season. Couldn't this show that aggression is not really a result of contact sports?


Since we're trying to find a correlation that some sports will prompt aggressiveness (psychologist's theory), (A) states that football players remain aggressive even after the sport season has ended. This prompts a person to think that the sport itself may contribute to the aggression. This is my opinion; what's the OA?
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Re: CR - college hockey and football players [#permalink] New post 01 Apr 2010, 11:25
OA is (A).
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Re: CR - college hockey and football players [#permalink] New post 01 Apr 2010, 11:41
" The football and hockey players were probably more hostile and aggressive to start with than the swimmers."
Maybe I just don't get it but if the claim is that they start off more agressive then how does a change in their aggression strengthen the argument? Football and hockey coulda started at 30 aggression and ended up at 80 while swimmers stayed at 50 and this scenario would work with A. Did I pick the wrong sentence as the conclusion?

I really didn't like any of these answers.
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Re: CR - college hockey and football players [#permalink] New post 01 Apr 2010, 11:51
NM I missread it. It's to strengthen the claim of the researchers instead of the narrorator. BINGO
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Re: CR - college hockey and football players [#permalink] New post 01 Apr 2010, 11:53
I'm re-reading the question and I'm doubting myself now. I'm not sure anymore.... :?
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Re: CR - college hockey and football players [#permalink] New post 05 Apr 2010, 00:48
Yep A
the premise is that the hockey and football players are aggressive to begin with. This fact is emphasized by A again. During the off-season also the players remain aggressive, thus less so because of contact sports.

C is stating a fact that could be still possible even when players are aggressive.
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Re: CR - college hockey and football players [#permalink] New post 14 Aug 2010, 21:47
'D' clarifies a significant point of contention by stating that none of the players included in study played both types of sports.
Thus, by clarifying a possible point of contention, it strengthens the issue.

Infact, 'A' which is allegedly the correct answer seems to be hurting the main conclusion. It implies that sports such as Hockey cause increase in aggression which might be carried offseason as well. whereas, the main point of the stimulus is, people who are aggressive to begin with, take up sports such as hockey. :?:
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Re: CR - college hockey and football players [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2010, 01:38
A FOR ME
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Re: CR - college hockey and football players [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2010, 09:52
I stand out and go with B ..
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Re: CR - college hockey and football players [#permalink] New post 18 Oct 2011, 03:13
A can also weaken conclusion. If football players are aggressive through out season that it is because they are like that. Choice B is correct answer IMO.
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Re: Psychological research indicates that college hockey and [#permalink] New post 28 Dec 2011, 01:01
The researchers’ conclusion is that contact sports encourage and teach participants to be hostile and aggressive. In A, the increase in aggressiveness can be attributed to the sports. During the season, there is an increase in the aggression of the players. For swimmers, there is no such aggression. Thus football and hockey (contact sports) were responsible for the increase in aggression but swimming (non-contact sports) did not cause any such increase. Thus A strengthens the argument.
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Re: Psychological research indicates that college hockey and [#permalink] New post 28 Dec 2011, 16:27
But A and C are very close......among them A looks the best
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Re: Psychological research indicates that college hockey and [#permalink] New post 01 Jun 2013, 23:27
seekmba wrote:
Psychological research indicates that college hockey and football players are more quickly moved to hostility and aggression than are college athletes in noncontact sports such as swimming. But the researchers’ conclusion—that contact sports encourage and teach participants to be hostile and aggressive —is untenable. The football and hockey players were probably more hostile and aggressive to start with than the swimmers.

Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion drawn by the psychological researchers?

(A) The football and hockey players became more hostile and aggressive during the season and remained so during the off-season, whereas there was no increase in aggressiveness among the swimmers.
(B) The football and hockey players, but not the swimmers, were aware at the start of the experiment that they were being tested for aggressiveness.
(C) The same psychological research indicated that the football and hockey players had a great respect for cooperation and team play, whereas the swimmers were most concerned with excelling as individual competitors.
(D) The research studies were designed to include no college athletes who participated in both contact and noncontact sports.
(E) Throughout the United States, more incidents of fan violence occur at baseball games than occur at hockey or football games.


If I am not wrong, the red line portion marked above is the conclusion and we are asked to strengthen that one. that is why the correct answer should be A, which strengthen the conclusion..
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Re: Psychological research indicates that college hockey and [#permalink] New post 24 Oct 2013, 14:58
seekmba wrote:
Psychological research indicates that college hockey and football players are more quickly moved to hostility and aggression than are college athletes in noncontact sports such as swimming. But the researchers’ conclusion—that contact sports encourage and teach participants to be hostile and aggressive—is untenable. The football and hockey players were probably more hostile and aggressive to start with than the swimmers.

Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion drawn by the psychological researchers?

(A) The football and hockey players became more hostile and aggressive during the season and remained so during the off-season, whereas there was no increase in aggressiveness among the swimmers.
(B) The football and hockey players, but not the swimmers, were aware at the start of the experiment that they were being tested for aggressiveness.
(C) The same psychological research indicated that the football and hockey players had a great respect for cooperation and team play, whereas the swimmers were most concerned with excelling as individual competitors.
(D) The research studies were designed to include no college athletes who participated in both contact and noncontact sports.
(E) Throughout the United States, more incidents of fan violence occur at baseball games than occur at hockey or football games.


Conclusion: The researchers’ conclusion—that contact sports encourage and teach participants to be hostile and aggressive—is untenable
Premise: The football and hockey players were probably more hostile and aggressive to start with than the swimmers.

We want to strengthen the conclusion that college hockey and football players are more quickly moved to hostility and aggression than are college athletes in noncontact sports such as swimming

In other words, we want to strengthen the claim that hockey/football make people more aggressive

So let's check out our AC.

(A) The football and hockey players became more hostile and aggressive during the season and remained so during the off-season, whereas there was no increase in aggressiveness among the swimmers.---> Could be, its saying that people are aggressive whether they are playing or not. But, still we don't really know if this was something caused by the sport or not.
(B) The football and hockey players, but not the swimmers, were aware at the start of the experiment that they were being tested for aggressiveness. --> Out of scope
(C) The same psychological research indicated that the football and hockey players had a great respect for cooperation and team play, whereas the swimmers were most concerned with excelling as individual competitors.--> Doesn't say much, in any case it would say something like swimmers are in fact more agressive than the other guys. I don't really feel that confortable with this answer.
(D) The research studies were designed to include no college athletes who participated in both contact and noncontact sports.---> Out of scope
(E) Throughout the United States, more incidents of fan violence occur at baseball games than occur at hockey or football games---> Out of scope

Final veredict: While I don't really like any of the answer choices, I suspect that A could be the right one because it is closest to what we need to strengthen.

If anyone comes up with any additional clues on this question please let me know and I'll throw some Kudos!

Hope it helps
Cheers!
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Re: Psychological research indicates that college hockey and   [#permalink] 24 Oct 2013, 14:58
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