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Public policy dictates the health risks the public routinely [#permalink]
02 Sep 2005, 13:45
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Public policy dictates the health risks the public routinely takes. Statistical arguments about health risks are used primarily to deflect public fears, while contributing little to policy debate. For example, statistics are cited to imply that wearing a seat belt reduces oneâ€™s risk of death in an automobile accident, deflecting attention from the fact that a transportation policy that promotes increasing use of automobiles inherently increases any individualâ€™s risk of death in an automobile accident.
The way the example functions above is most closely paralleled in which one of the following?
(A) Statistics indicate that an individualâ€™s risk of contracting cancer from radiation emitted by a nuclear power plant is less than that of contracting cancer from sunshine. These statistics draw attention away from the fact that a policy of energy conservation is safer for human health than a policy based on nuclear energy.
(B) Statistics indicate that an urban residentâ€™s risk of accidental death from any cause is no greater than that of an individual who lives in a suburban or rural area. These statistics counter the widely held public belief that urban areas are more dangerous than suburban or rural areas.
(C) Statistics indicate that the average life expectancy of males is shorter than that of females. This alone should not influence policies regarding eligibility for life insurance because it is also true that any individualâ€™s expectancy can be calculated on the basis of personal characteristics and health practices.
(D) Statistics indicate that the average life expectancy of males is shorter than that of females. When one accounts for the fact that females smoke less and are less likely to work in jobs in the chemical and manufacturing industries, the difference in life expectancy is narrowed.
(E) Statistics indicate that the number of people dependent on alcohol far exceeds the number dependent on illegal addictive drugs; thus, any policy for the control and treatment of substance abuse should provide for treatment of alcoholism.
between A and C I will choose A because the example best mimics the the logic in the premise :
Premise - statistics are used as a makebelief tool for policy makers - use seatbelts - you'll be safe.
example - statitics are used the same way - a bunch government official crunch some numbers about how its less likely to die from radiation cause by the powerplant than it is from the sun - lets built the nuclear powerplant and you guys will be safe.
The argument is the statistical data are used to attack the effect of the problem like insisting people to wear seat belt, but it hurts because the focus is shifted from the decreasing automobile use(attacking the root of the problem).
so we need to find the choices that does the same.
Take choice A,
Effect is less chance of cancer from nuclear reactors than sunshine, so the focus is shifted to producing energy through nuclear means rather than conserving it (which will be attackign the root of the problem)
The statement starts with public healt BS to lure people subconsiously into the choices that have health insurance bid attached to it.
this is a tough CR. on parallel CR;s i would always draw on scratch paper the cause/effect relationships if any, because on these types of questions cause/effect is mostly tested. using scratch paper on these helps a lot its easier to see the parallelism this way than to just imagine it.