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Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to

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Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink] New post 05 Oct 2006, 06:30
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Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.

B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.

C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.

D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.

E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.

Last edited by laxieqv on 05 Oct 2006, 06:56, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink] New post 04 Jun 2014, 08:54
Do you think option A should be "Most of the environmental problems..."
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink] New post 23 Nov 2014, 22:53
A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.
- this is correct, because it fills in the missing link between the premises and the conclusion. The premises discuss the difficulty of eliciting sympathy for types of organisms other than large mammals, which leads the author to conclude that publicity campaigns are unlikely to have an impact on the most important environmental problem. However, it fails to address if the most important environmental problems involve mostly large mammals or not.

B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.
-This is completely outside the scope and has nothing to do with the conclusion.

C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.
-Just because they are most effective when they elicit sympathy doesn't mean that they are not effective when they do not.

D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.
- not really saying anything, because we still don't know if the most important problems involve large mammals or not

E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.
-classifying organisms as environmentally significant or not is outside the scope.
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Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink] New post 24 Nov 2014, 08:29
Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.
B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.
C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.
D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.
E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.


That is a tricky question, OA is A.

I think the real challenge here is to identify the conclusion, which is that publicity campaigns for endangered species are not likely to work.
Once we know that, let's go through the answers to find something on which this argment relies.

A- CORRECT- if the endangered species in question were actually mammals, then the campaign would be a success as the premise says that it attracts sympathy from the cause... etc (Notice that i've used the negation technique to check out weather the conclusion relies on this assumption. if the contrary of A destroys the conclusion then it must be an assumption on which the conclusion depends)

B- Wrong - This is not relevant as the point is that it is more difficult for anyone to feel sympathy towards these living beings compared to mammals

C- Wrong - this answer is out of scope, it looks like it is trying to tell us that, in order to fight environmental problems, it is better to talk about endangered organism. Yes, it is true but we're looking for something to compare mammals and some microorganism, not both of them and something else.

D- Wrong - the word ignore is too strong, it is not about whether they ignore it but more about which is effective and in this case why it will be uneffective because its hard to elicit sympathy toward microorganism.

E- Wrong- this contradicts the premise that microorganism are important because much of the bigger organism rely on them.

I tried to explain clearly even though it is a tricky one but I Hope it helps.

If yes share your kudos it's good for karma =)
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink] New post 09 Jun 2015, 06:53
laxieqv wrote:
Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.

B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.

C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.

D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.

E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.



Hi friends,
I was able to narrow down to A and D.
D is concerned about "environmental problems" whereas the passages is concerned about "most important environmental problem".
This rules out D.
A is correct.

Kudos if u like my explanation!!!
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink] New post 09 Jun 2015, 14:06
gmataspirant2009 wrote:
noboru wrote:
16. Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
Conclusion: Plublicity compaign will not much impact the most important environmental problems.
Now I will use denial method to test if negation of the answer choice undermines the conclusion. If it undermines, the answer choice will be the correct assumtion.
(A) The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.
==> The negation of the choice is "The most important environmental problem includes only the large mammals." Now since large mammals evoke sympathy easily, publicity compaign must have impact on the most important environmental problems. This clearly undermines the conclusion and hence it is correct assumption.
(B) Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.
==>Irrelevent
(C) Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.
==> "the most effective" is too extreme. The conclusion talks about some impact not the most effective way to impact.
(D) People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.
==>The negation of the choice is "People do care about environmental problems even if it affect the creature they do not sympathize". This has no effect on the conclusion as we are not sure what the most important environmental problem involves.
(E) An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.



Hi,
This is a brilliant explanation. Can you please explain or share a link about how and when to use negation of choice in CR questions?
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink] New post 10 Jun 2015, 06:44
Expert's post
Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

The argument is that even though non-mammals are critical for large ecosystems, they don't elicit sympathy in publicity campaigns. Therefore, these campaigns won't make a significant impact on the most important environmental problems. This argument establishes two categories: other species (affect the most important environmental problems) and mammals (don't affect the most important environmental problems).
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.

B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings. out of scope

C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism. The argument doesn't depend on the relative efficacy of campaign strategies.

D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize. This doesn't affect the argument, which is centered on the two categories of endangered species and their importance to the environment.

E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.
This is also tangential to the argment.
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink] New post 10 Jun 2015, 08:05
Conclusion: Publicity unlikely to have impact on MOST imp problems
Premise: Publicity gives feelings for large mammals, but hardly any for soil organism on which large ecosystem & agr depend.

Assumption: MOST imp problems are soil organism than large mammals.
(Please note that the argument does NOT say that most imp problems are only soil organism!)


A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.
Correct based on pre-thinking

B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.
1) Extra info, and does not bridge the gap between premise and conclusion.
2) Also the argument is talking about feelings of people, not micro-organisms.

C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.
"some" organism can be "large mammals" or even small mammals like "soil organism". This assumption can swing in either way.

D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.
Please note that people are not ignoring the problems. It is just that the publicity is not effect to provoke any feelings for small organisms.

E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.
This was very tempting for me to choose.
The argument says "unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems".
The choice says "An organism can be environmentally significant". Now where is the problem?
We know for sure that most important env problems are related to the ones that affect large ecosystems or agriculture.
However, we don't know for sure if these are env significant!

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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink] New post 10 Jun 2015, 11:17
It took me 3 minutes to Answer not sure whether we get this much time in real exam
Analysis:
Conclusion: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems
any choice when attached with not weakens the conclusion is answer
Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to   [#permalink] 10 Jun 2015, 11:17

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