Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to

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Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2006, 06:30
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Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.

B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.

C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.

D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.

E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by laxieqv on 05 Oct 2006, 06:56, edited 1 time in total.
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01 Sep 2011, 04:37
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This is a challenging problem because two of the wrong answer choices are attractive. The argument itself is not overly complex, but you must pay attention to the language. Consider the conclusion of the argument:

“Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems.”

Ask yourself, why is it that these campaigns are unlikely to have much impact on the most important problems? According to the premises, the reason is that “it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms [than large mammals].” The reasoning shows that the author believes there is a connection between the important problems and organisms that are not large mammals. This Supporter connection is perfectly reflected in

Answer choice (A), the correct answer. Again, when faced with an Assumption question, remember to look for connections between rogue elements in the argument, and then seek that connection in the answer choices.
Answer choice (C): This is a Shell Game answer. The conclusion is specific about “publicity campaigns for endangered species” as they relate to environmental problems. This answer refers to “publicity campaigns” in general—a different concept. It may be that the most effective publicity campaign for the environment has nothing to do with organisms. Consequently, this answer is not an assumption of the argument.

Answer choice (D): This answer choice is worded too strongly and is an Exaggerated answer. “Ignore” goes further than what the author implies. The author indicates that it is “more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms,” but the author does not say it is impossible to get sympathy from individuals if a non-large mammal is involved. Further, the argument is specific about the impact on the “most important” problems, and this answer goes well beyond that domain.

Answer choice (E): The microorganisms discussed at the end of the argument are an example (“such as”);
therefore, the author does not assume this type of relationship must be true in order for the conclusion to be
true.
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01 Oct 2009, 10:03
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noboru wrote:
16. Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
Conclusion: Plublicity compaign will not much impact the most important environmental problems.
Now I will use denial method to test if negation of the answer choice undermines the conclusion. If it undermines, the answer choice will be the correct assumtion.
(A) The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.
==> The negation of the choice is "The most important environmental problem includes only the large mammals." Now since large mammals evoke sympathy easily, publicity compaign must have impact on the most important environmental problems. This clearly undermines the conclusion and hence it is correct assumption.
(B) Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.
==>Irrelevent
(C) Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.
==> "the most effective" is too extreme. The conclusion talks about some impact not the most effective way to impact.
(D) People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.
==>The negation of the choice is "People do care about environmental problems even if it affect the creature they do not sympathize". This has no effect on the conclusion as we are not sure what the most important environmental problem involves.
(E) An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.

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01 Oct 2009, 07:03
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A directly is mentioned in the passage. If the most important environmental problems involve endangered mammals then the whole argument falls apart. C is close but can't be right because the campaign is not for the environment but endangered species instead. So it's out of scope. D talks about environmental problems in general, not the most important ones, and makes a judgement about the set based upon the characteristics of the subset. So it doesn't make sense.
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05 Oct 2006, 19:12
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A in this case.
"Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems". This campaign is not effective because of its only focus on large mammals which is not the most important part of the environmental problem. So A it is.
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30 Sep 2009, 11:51
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16. Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
(A) The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.
(B) Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.
(C) Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.
(D) People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.
(E) An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.
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Re: Assumption question. need help.. [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2009, 05:43
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evidence 1. large mammal - easy to elicit sympathy
evidence 2. other kinds of organism - difficul to elicit sympathy

Conclusion. Campaign unlikely to have much impact on important environmental problems

Assumption - between evidences and conclusion.
A clearly fills the gap.

Jasonlu1981 wrote:
Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.
B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.
C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.
D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.
E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.
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24 Apr 2010, 02:33
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RaviChandra wrote:
Q28)Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
(A) The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals. >>> Argument talks about ease of attributing feelings to large animals >>> BUT large ecosystems and agriculture depend on soil microorganisms >>> Unsaid premise is : most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals >>> CORRECT
(B) Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings. >>> Out of scope
(C) Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism. >>> There is no discussion regarding the effectiveness of the campaigns.!!
(D) People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize. >>> It is not unsaid assumption >>> Argument talks about ease of attributing feelings to large animals >>> BUT large ecosystems and agriculture depend on soil microorganisms.
(E) An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture. >>> No discussion on organism being environment friendly or not.
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Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2014, 08:29
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Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.
B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.
C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.
D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.
E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.

That is a tricky question, OA is A.

I think the real challenge here is to identify the conclusion, which is that publicity campaigns for endangered species are not likely to work.
Once we know that, let's go through the answers to find something on which this argment relies.

A- CORRECT- if the endangered species in question were actually mammals, then the campaign would be a success as the premise says that it attracts sympathy from the cause... etc (Notice that i've used the negation technique to check out weather the conclusion relies on this assumption. if the contrary of A destroys the conclusion then it must be an assumption on which the conclusion depends)

B- Wrong - This is not relevant as the point is that it is more difficult for anyone to feel sympathy towards these living beings compared to mammals

C- Wrong - this answer is out of scope, it looks like it is trying to tell us that, in order to fight environmental problems, it is better to talk about endangered organism. Yes, it is true but we're looking for something to compare mammals and some microorganism, not both of them and something else.

D- Wrong - the word ignore is too strong, it is not about whether they ignore it but more about which is effective and in this case why it will be uneffective because its hard to elicit sympathy toward microorganism.

E- Wrong- this contradicts the premise that microorganism are important because much of the bigger organism rely on them.

I tried to explain clearly even though it is a tricky one but I Hope it helps.

If yes share your kudos it's good for karma =)
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Re: CR publicity campaigns (assumption type) [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2006, 06:49
laxieqv wrote:
Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.

B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.

C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.

D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.

E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.

I would go with C. Sympathy is the focus of the argument. And C is the assumption on which the argument relies on.

Laxie, is there some repition in the argument?
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Re: CR publicity campaigns (assumption type) [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2006, 07:00
ak_idc wrote:
laxieqv wrote:
Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.

B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.

C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.

D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.

E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.

I would go with C. Sympathy is the focus of the argument. And C is the assumption on which the argument relies on.

Laxie, is there some repition in the argument?

Just a small typo, but I will let her edit it because she can

My choice is (D) here. For example, most humans are sympathetic to cute little cuddly koala bears that they can see and touch, but really don't care about nearly invisible plankton or microscopic bacteria.
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05 Oct 2006, 07:27
Going with D .

Narrowed down to C and D, Both are assumptions.
D is a much broader assumption.
C is much narrow by saying that sympathy is the only factor affecting peoples concern for environment.
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30 Sep 2009, 12:25
Got D after POE. Other choices are either too strong or irrelevant.
If D is not true then the conclusion that the campaigns will not have much impact falls apart.
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01 Oct 2009, 06:11
C seems to be the answer.
C assumes that "sympathy" is important for "impact on the environment".
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01 Oct 2009, 08:17
C is the answer as per my opinion

The argument can be deconstructed as follows:
1. Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems...why exactly??
Because...
It is easier to attribute pain and hence elicit sympathy to large mammals than to micro organisms even though these might affect ecosystems
The hidden premise would then obviosuly be the fact that sympathy is necessary for the success of the campaign.

But what is the official answer??
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01 Oct 2009, 10:22
gmataspirant2009 wrote:
noboru wrote:
16. Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
Conclusion: Plublicity compaign will not much impact the most important environmental problems.
Now I will use denial method to test if negation of the answer choice undermines the conclusion. If it undermines, the answer choice will be the correct assumtion.
(A) The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.
==> The negation of the choice is "The most important environmental problem includes only the large mammals." Now since large mammals evoke sympathy easily, publicity compaign must have impact on the most important environmental problems. This clearly undermines the conclusion and hence it is correct assumption.
(B) Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.
==>Irrelevent
(C) Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.
==> "the most effective" is too extreme. The conclusion talks about some impact not the most effective way to impact.
(D) People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.
==>The negation of the choice is "People do care about environmental problems even if it affect the creature they do not sympathize". This has no effect on the conclusion as we are not sure what the most important environmental problem involves.
(E) An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.

I still donot understand, how if option E were assumed, will the conclusion be supported? Even if an organism were environmentally significant, it need not draw sympathy since it may not be shown to elicit pain/feelings. In such a case either way E would not affect the conclusion
Also I couldnot get you reasoning for eliminating C. Most effective does not mean the only effective way, further if say one could elicit lot of sympathy, then obviously, the public campaign would succeed
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01 Oct 2009, 10:28
vannbj wrote:
A directly is mentioned in the passage. If the most important environmental problems involve endangered mammals then the whole argument falls apart. C is close but can't be right because the campaign is not for the environment but endangered species instead. So it's out of scope. D talks about environmental problems in general, not the most important ones, and makes a judgement about the set based upon the characteristics of the subset. So it doesn't make sense.

I too thought it to be A for some time. But then, consider this if it was mentioned as a premise, may be we cannot chose it, since assumptions are supposed to be certain invisible deductions or elements which hold the coherence of the statement.
Lemme know if I have been mistaken
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01 Oct 2009, 23:00
Look for explanation at http://gmat-cr.blogspot.com/
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11 Dec 2009, 04:53
Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.
B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.
C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.
D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.
E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.

Last edited by Jasonlu1981 on 11 Dec 2009, 05:13, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Assumption question. need help.. [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2009, 05:08
bsv180985 wrote:
What is the question exactly???

Sorry, it is an assumption question.

Question Stem: Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
Re: Assumption question. need help..   [#permalink] 11 Dec 2009, 05:08

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