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Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South

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Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South [#permalink] New post 22 May 2008, 06:21
By the sixteenth century, the Incas
of South America ruled an empire that
extended along the Pacific coast and
Line Andean highlands from what is now
(5) Ecuador to central Chile. While most
of the Incas were self-sufficient
agriculturists, the inhabitants of the
highland basins above 9,000 feet were
constrained by the kinds of crops they
(10) could cultivate. Whereas 95 percent
of the principal Andean food crops can
be cultivated below 3,000 feet, only
20 percent reproduce readily above
9,000 feet. Given this unequal
(15) resource distribution, highland Incas
needed access to the products of
lower, warmer climatic zones in order
to enlarge the variety and quantity of
their foodstuffs. In most of the prein-
(20) dustrial world, the problem of different
resource distribution was resolved by
long-distance trade networks over
which the end consumer exercised
little control. Although the peoples
(25) of the Andean highlands participated
in such networks, they relied primarily
on the maintenance of autonomous
production forces in as many ecological
zones as possible. The
(30) commodities produced in these
zones were extracted, processed,
and transported entirely by members
of a single group.
This strategy of direct access
(35) to a maximum number of ecological
zones by a single group is called
vertical economy. Even today,
one can see Andean communities
maintaining use rights simultaneously
(40) to pasturelands above 12,000 feet, to
potato fields in basins over 9,000 feet,
and to plots of warm-land crops in
regions below 6,000 feet. This
strategy has two principal variations.
(45) The first is “compressed verticality,”
in which a single village resides in
a location that permits easy access
to closely located ecological zones.
Different crop zones or pasturelands
(50) are located within a few days walk of
the parent community. Community
members may reside temporarily
in one of the lower zones to manage
the extraction of products unavailable
(55) in the homeland. In the second variation,
called the “vertical archipelago,”
the village exploits resources in widely
dispersed locations, constituting a
series of independent production
(60) “islands.” In certain pre-Columbian
Inca societies, groups were sent from
the home territory to establish permanent
satellite communities or colonies
in distant tropical forests or coastal
(65) locations. There the colonists grew
crops and extracted products for their
own use and for transshipment back
to their high-altitude compatriots.
In contrast to the compressed
(70) verticality system, in this system,
commodities rather than people
circulated through the archipelago.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q4:
According to the passage, which of the following is true about the pre-industrial
long distance trade networks mentioned in line 22 ?

A. They were not used extensively in most of the pre-industrial world.
B. They were used to some extent by the people of the Andean highlands.
C. They were not an effective means of solving the problem of different resource distribution.
D. They necessitated the establishment of permanent satellite communities in
widely dispersed locations.
E. They were useful only for the transportation of products from warm climatic zones.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q5:
According to the passage, the inhabitants of the Andean highlands resolved the problem
of unequal resource distribution primarily in which of the following ways?

A. Following self-sufficient agricultural practices
B. Increasing commodity production from the ecological zones in the highland basins
C. Increasing their reliance on long-distance trade networks
D. Establishing satellite communities throughout the Andean highlands
E. Establishing production forces in ecological zones beyond their parent communities
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q6:
The passage suggests that as a way of addressing the problem of different resource
distribution in the preindustrial world, the practice of vertical economy differed from
the use of long-distance trade networks in that vertical economy allowed

A. commodities to reach the end consumer faster
B. a wide variety of agricultural goods to reach the end consumer
C. a single group to maintain control over the production process
D. greater access to commodities from lower, warmer climatic zones
E. greater use of self-sufficient agricultural techniques
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The passage suggests that for an Andean highland village attempting to resolve
the problem of unequal resource distribution, the strategy known as compressed
verticality would probably be inappropriate for which of the following situations?

A. The village’s location is such that it is difficult for the village to participate
in long-distance trade networks.
B. The village does not have the resources to establish permanent satellite communities
in production zones beyond the home community.
C. The warm-land crop regions nearest to the village are all below 6,000 feet.
D. The location of the village does not provide ready access to an adequate
variety of ecological zones.
E. The nearest crop production zones are located below the village, while the nearest
pasturelands are located above the village.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


Last edited by JarvisR on 29 Jun 2015, 08:17, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South [#permalink] New post 24 May 2008, 15:15
I get B E C and D
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Re: Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South [#permalink] New post 25 May 2008, 15:08
4 - B
5 - E
6 - C
7 - D

What's the OA?
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Re: Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South [#permalink] New post 26 May 2008, 10:06
whats the OA??
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Re: Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South [#permalink] New post 26 May 2008, 10:42
Very sorry for late reply.

You all nailed it. OAs 4B, 5E, 6C, 7D. :cool

I took 13 Min and got ONLY 1 right. Something seriously wrong with my RC skills. :oops:
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Re: Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South [#permalink] New post 20 Feb 2009, 07:42
Excuse me! What test does the passage come from?
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Re: Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South [#permalink] New post 30 Jan 2013, 05:53
mymba99 wrote:
Very sorry for late reply.

You all nailed it. OAs 4B, 5E, 6C, 7D. :cool

I took 13 Min and got ONLY 1 right. Something seriously wrong with my RC skills. :oops:



same here ... got just the first one right ...

Can anyone please explain all the answers??
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Re: Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South [#permalink] New post 21 Mar 2015, 02:03
Difficult passage. Answered two incorrectly.
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Re: Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South [#permalink] New post 01 Jul 2015, 23:25
11mins. :(
Goofed up in second question, which spoiled my timing. Can be done in < 9-mins.
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Re: Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South   [#permalink] 01 Jul 2015, 23:25
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Q4 to Q7: By the sixteenth century, the Incas of South

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