Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most

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Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2007, 13:44
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592. Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most distant observable objects in the universe, believed to be the cores of galaxies in an early stage of development.
(A) believed to be
(B) are believed to be
(C) some believe them to be
(D) some believe they are
(E) it is believed that they are

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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22 Jul 2007, 14:01
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All of the others make incomplete sentences. Just take out the middle phrase, at billions of light-years from Earth the most distant observable objects in the universe, and read the sentence.
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22 Jul 2007, 23:21
believed to be is correct idiom

choice A is missing the verb
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22 Jul 2007, 23:46
B is correct.

A -> in missing a verb 'are', sentence becomes broken and awkward
C,D -> 'some' tries to suggest people but isn't clear
E -> 'it' has no referent
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23 Jul 2007, 00:09
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bmwhype2 wrote:
592. Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most distant observable objects in the universe, believed to be the cores of galaxies in an early stage of development.
(A) believed to be
(B) are believed to be
(C) some believe them to be
(D) some believe they are
(E) it is believed that they are

Easy one eh?

OA is B.
The correct idiom is believe X to be Y.

Danny believes GMAT practice tests to be extremely helpful.
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24 Aug 2010, 08:49
Got it in 39 seconds. It was very easy so I need to work more on such questions. I think that we shouldn't take more than 20 seconds on such questions.

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29 Aug 2011, 02:50
Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most distant observable objects in the universe, believed to be the cores of galaxies in an early stage of development.
(A) believed to be
(B) are believed to be
(C) some believe them to be
(D) some believe they are
(E) it is believed that they are

A - the sentence is a fragment in that it does not have a working verb. the correct verb would be are believed to be
B - correct
C - what does the pronoun some refer to? it makes the sentence wordy. the subject 'some' is not required. the sentence can work in passive voice better.
D - same issue about 'some'
E - it is believed that they are makes the sentence unnecessarily wordy and awkward
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Re: Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2013, 12:41
did any1 notice "early stage of development"? does this phrase draws any reference to past?
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S

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Re: Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2013, 12:41
Or am i being a bit more thoughtful than needed...?
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Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most dist [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2013, 06:59
Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most distant observable objects in the universe, believed to be the cores of galaxies in an early stage of
development.

(A) believed to be
(B) are believed to be
(C) some believe them to be
(D) some believe they are
(E) it is believed that they are

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Re: Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most dist [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2013, 10:56
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Expert's post
rrsnathan wrote:
Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most distant observable objects in the universe, believed to be the cores of galaxies in an early stage of
development.
(A) believed to be
(B) are believed to be
(C) some believe them to be
(D) some believe they are
(E) it is believed that they are

Dear rrsnathan,
I'm happy to help with this.

First of all, a hugely helpful technique on GMAT SC is what is sometime called "eliminating fluff". Here, we have a subject, "quasars", and then a big honking modifier. Mentally, cross out that modifier, everything between the commas --- then we have

Quasars ...
(A) believed to be
(B) are believed to be
(C) some believe them to be
(D) some believe they are
(E) it is believed that they are

Well, we have a subject, and we need a full bonafide verb. "Believed", by itself, is just a participle, a noun-modifier, not a full verb. (The full verb is "are believed"). See this blog on participles:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/participle ... -the-gmat/
Choice (A) has a participle, not a full verb, so it creates a sentence that has no verb --- the famous "missing verb" mistake. See:
http://gmat.magoosh.com/lessons/914-the ... rb-mistake
Choice (B) correctly has a full verb, and it gets the idiom correct as well. For the idiom, see:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-idiom ... d-knowing/
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-idiom-ebook/
Choice (C), (D) & (E) all have a double subject .....
(C) Quasars, some believe them to be ...
(D) Quasars, some believe they are ...
(E) Quasars, it is believed that they are ...

These may sound colloquially acceptable, but they are absolutely unacceptable in the formal academic standards of the GMAT SC. See:
http://gmat.magoosh.com/lessons/915-the ... ct-mistake

Therefore, the only possible answer is (B).

Does all this make sense?

Mike
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05 Sep 2013, 15:23
Hi,
Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most distant observable objects in the universe, believed to be the cores of galaxies in an early stage of development.
(A) believed to be
(B) are believed to be
(C) some believe them to be
(D) some believe they are
(E) it is believed that they are

Meaning- the phrase "in an early stage of development" - does it indicate the Past tense?
means - Quasars were believed to be the cores of galaxies (in an early stage)?
I am confused in meaning.
Answer is B: means- it is fact, that Quasars are believed to be cores of galaxies. I am confused in this. please help me for the same.

Thanks,
Mugdha.

Last edited by Narenn on 08 Sep 2013, 19:22, edited 1 time in total.
Merging Similar Topics. Refer the discussion above.
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05 Sep 2013, 17:01
Hi Mugdha,
You need the sentence to have a main verb to make it error free. Only option B supplies that

Quasars [Subject], at billions of light-years from Earth the most distant observable objects in the universe [modifier] , ARE [Main verb] believed to be the cores of galaxies in an early stage of development.

If you remove the fluff you get : Quasars ARE believed to be the cores of galaxies in an early stage of development.

Hope tht clears it up.
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06 Sep 2013, 06:35

Hi Mugdha,

Thanks for posting your doubt here.

Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most distant observable objects in the universe, believed to be the cores of galaxies in an early stage of development.

In this official problem, the Subject "Quasars" has no verb. Hence, we do not even have a sentence here. Choice B brings in that missing Verb "are" for the plural Subject "Quasars".

Now let's talk about the prepositional phrase "in an early stage of development". This prepositional phrase in the original sentence modifies the action denoted by the verb-ed modifier "believed". When are Quasars believed to be the core of the galaxies? They are believed to be the core of the galaxies in the early stage of development. Even though this prepositional phrase does modify the action denoted by the word "believed" in Choice A or the verb "are believed" itself in Choice B, it has no bearing on the tense of the action. It is just an additional information about the action that it modifies.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2013, 05:12

You stated above that it modifies believed to be
I believe the prepositional phrase 'in a early stage of development' modifies 'core of galaxies' - cores in an early stage of development?
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Re: Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most [#permalink]

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02 Dec 2013, 02:07
rahulvv wrote:

You stated above that it modifies believed to be
I believe the prepositional phrase 'in a early stage of development' modifies 'core of galaxies' - cores in an early stage of development?

I also think so, but let us wait for expert reply.

Also, I am wondering if it will make any difference (in terms of answer choice) what "in an early stage of development" is modifying.
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Re: Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2014, 08:31
bmwhype2 wrote:
592. Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most distant observable objects in the universe, believed to be the cores of galaxies in an early stage of development.
(A) believed to be
(B) are believed to be
(C) some believe them to be
(D) some believe they are
(E) it is believed that they are

You need a subject-verb agreement.

A) lacks a correct verb that follows "quasars", believed in itself is not sufficient because it creates ambiguity. Besides, a past participle (verb-ed) cannot stand on its own without a preceding modifier. A is wrong (but the best wrong answer)

B) The only difference between A and B is that we now - correctly - have the "are" in front of the past participle believed. This is correct

C) "Quasars... some believe them to be" makes absolutely no sense, is grammatically incorrect and does not preserve the intended meaning of the author. C is gone

D) We eliminate this for the same reason as C

E) "it is believed that they are" seems like a perfect trap for foreigners but for those experienced with american english, this sounds awfully awkward. E is gone
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Re: Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2014, 22:55
bmwhype2 wrote:
592. Quasars,at billions of light-years from Earth the most distant observable objects in the universe, believed to be the cores of galaxies in an early stage of development.
(A) believed to be
(B) are believed to be
(C) some believe them to be
(D) some believe they are
(E) it is believed that they are

Quasars " are believed to be" .....

+1B
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Re: Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2014, 02:48

Hi guys,

I was studying this "believed to be" structure and I got puzzled with the experts' explanations about the subject in this phrase. I think that the subject in this phrase is indeed "the cores of galaxies". I'm basing this analysis in a similiar GMATPrep problem that brings the same structure and requires a more-precise suject-verb agreement. Check this out:

"Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow,[...]"

As you could see, the singular verb "IS" was necessary to agree with the subject following "believed to be" structure.

Cheers,
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Re: Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most [#permalink]

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14 Sep 2014, 05:33
bmwhype2 wrote:
592. Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most distant observable objects in the universe, believed to be the cores of galaxies in an early stage of development.
(A) believed to be
(B) are believed to be
(C) some believe them to be
(D) some believe they are
(E) it is believed that they are

a. doesn't have verb for Quasars. Believed to be is a modifier here. (verb-ed)
b. correct.
c. no verb for quasars.
D same as C.
E. same as C.

Believed to be - correct idiom.
Re: Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most   [#permalink] 14 Sep 2014, 05:33

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