Questions 9-10 are based on the following. In the : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# Questions 9-10 are based on the following. In the

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Questions 9-10 are based on the following. In the [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2008, 05:39
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Questions 9-10 are based on the following.
In the industrialized nations, the last century has witnessed a shortening of the average workday from twelve hours or longer to less than eight hours. Mindful of this enormous increase in leisure time over the past century, many people assume that the same trend has obtained throughout history, and that, therefore, prehistoric humans must have labored incessantly for their very survival.
We cannot, of course, directly test this assumption. However, a study of primitive peoples of today suggests a different conclusion. The Mbuti of central Africa, for instance, spend only a few hours each day in hunting, gathering, and tending to other economic necessities. The rest of their time is spent as they choose. The implication is that the short workday is not peculiar to industrialized societies. Rather, both the extended workday of 1880 and the shorter workday of today are products of different stages of the continuing process of industrialization.
9. Which of the following inferences about industrialization is best supported by the passage above?
(A) People in advanced industrialized societies have more leisure time than those in nonindustrialized societies.
(B) An average workday of twelve hours or more is peculiar to economies in the early stages of industrialization.
(C) Industrialization involves a trade-off between tedious, monotonous jobs and the benefits of increased leisure.
(D) It is likely that the extended workday of an industrializing country will eventually be shortened.
(E) As industrialization progresses, people tend to look for self-fulfillment in leisure rather than work.
10. Which of the following, if true, would most greatly strengthen the argument made in the passage above?
(A) In recent decades, the economy of the Mbuti has been markedly affected by the encroachment of modern civilization.
(B) The life-style of the Mbuti is similar to that of prehistoric humans.
(C) The Mbuti have no words in their language to express the distinction between work activities and leisure activities.
(D) The workday of a European peasant in medieval times averaged between eleven and fifteen hours.
(E) The members of the Shaklik tribe in central Asia have an average workday of ten to twelve hours.
11. Gloria: Those who advocate tuition tax credits for parents whose children attend private schools maintain that people making no use of a government service should not be forced to pay for it. Yet those who choose to buy bottled water rather than drink water from the local supply are not therefore exempt from paying taxes to maintain the local water supply.
Roger: Your argument is illogical. Children are required by law to attend school. Since school attendance is a matter not of choice, but of legal requirement, it is unfair for the government to force some parents to pay for it twice.
Which of the following responses by Gloria would best refute Roger’s charge that her argument is illogical?
(A) Although drinking water is not required by law, it is necessary for all people, and therefore my analogy is appropriate.
(B) Those who can afford the tuition at a high-priced private school can well bear the same tax burden as those whose children attend public schools.
(C) If tuition tax credits are granted, the tax burden on parents who choose public schools will rise to an intolerable level.
(D) The law does not say that parents must send their children to private schools, only that the children must attend some kind of school, whether public or private.
(E) Both bottled water and private schools are luxury items, and it is unfair that some citizens should be able to afford them while others cannot.
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Re: cr 1000 d 3 [#permalink]

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10 Feb 2008, 17:14
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9. B?
10. B?
11. A?
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10 Feb 2008, 18:11
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9. Which of the following inferences about industrialization is best supported by the passage above?

(A) People in advanced industrialized societies have more leisure time than those in nonindustrialized societies.[May be true – but advanced industrialized societies is not discussed in the argument – eliminate it]

(B) An average workday of twelve hours or more is peculiar to economies in the early stages of industrialization.[This is mentioned in the argument – eliminate it]

(C) Industrialization involves a trade-off between tedious, monotonous jobs and the benefits of increased leisure.[What industrialization involves is out of the argument scope – eliminate it]

(D) It is likely that the extended workday of an industrializing country will eventually be shortened.[Hold it]

(E) As industrialization progresses, people tend to look for self-fulfillment in leisure rather than work.[What people tend to look for out of the argument scope – eliminate it]

Answer: D

10. Which of the following, if true, would most greatly strengthen the argument made in the passage above?
(A) In recent decades, the economy of the Mbuti has been markedly affected by the encroachment of modern civilization.[Hold it]

(B) The life-style of the Mbuti is similar to that of prehistoric humans.[Life-style is out of the scope of the argument – eliminate it]

(C) The Mbuti have no words in their language to express the distinction between work activities and leisure activities.[Mbuti language is not discusses in the argument – eliminate it]

(D) The workday of a European peasant in medieval times averaged between eleven and fifteen hours.[That is fine but doesn’t relate to the argument conclusion – eliminate it]

(E) The members of the Shaklik tribe in central Asia have an average workday of ten to twelve hours.[Shaklik tribe is not discussed in the argument – eliminate it]

Answer: A

Which of the following responses by Gloria would best refute Roger’s charge that her argument is illogical?

(A) Although drinking water is not required by law, it is necessary for all people, and therefore my analogy is appropriate.[Firstly, this is Gloria's analogy and more importantly water analogy is much more prevaling than the Government Law requirement - Hold it]

(B) Those who can afford the tuition at a high-priced private school can well bear the same tax burden as those whose children attend public schools.[This illogical and weakens Gloria’s claim – eliminate it]

(C) If tuition tax credits are granted, the tax burden on parents who choose public schools will rise to an intolerable level. [What are tuition consequences is irrelevant – eliminate it]

(D) The law does not say that parents must send their children to private schools, only that the children must attend some kind of school, whether public or private.[This is not Gloria's argument - eliminte it]

(E) Both bottled water and private schools are luxury items, and it is unfair that some citizens should be able to afford them while others cannot.[Luxury items – irrelevant]

Answer: A (Thanks for checking)

Last edited by hanumayamma on 11 Feb 2008, 00:50, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: cr 1000 d 3 [#permalink]

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10 Feb 2008, 19:27
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D:...hanumayamma explained it pretty clearly

B:"The life-style of the Mbuti is similar to that of prehistoric humans" the author is trying to prove wrong the assumption that "prehistoric humans must have labored incessantly for their very survival" by using the Mbuti lifestyle to represent the prehistoric lifestyle. Therefore, the author's argument would be strengthen if he can prove that the Mbuti lifestyle is truely representative of the prehistoric lifestyle.

A...hanumayamma explained it well.

hanumayamma: you put down the wrong choice at the bottom "Answer: D"
You are always sooo precise, I am shocked
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Re: cr 1000 d 3 [#permalink]

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13 Jan 2009, 20:58
10.
People assumes: prehistoric humans must have labored incessantly for their very survival.
Author conclude: extend and shorter workdays are products of different stages of the continuing process of industrialization. - therefore prehistoric humans must NOT have labored incessantly for their very survival.

Strengthen: Show that Mbuti had same lifestyle like prehistoric human. Hence B
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Re: cr 1000 d 3 [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2009, 00:00
9 . D
10. B
11. A

OA pls.
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Re: cr 1000 d 3 [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2009, 08:44
D
A
A
I have a doubt. Is peoples in line 5 correct? Becuase people is already plural form of person,is usage of peoples correct? just asking out of curiosity for sentence correction.
marcodonzelli wrote:
Questions 9-10 are based on the following.
In the industrialized nations, the last century has witnessed a shortening of the average workday from twelve hours or longer to less than eight hours. Mindful of this enormous increase in leisure time over the past century, many people assume that the same trend has obtained throughout history, and that, therefore, prehistoric humans must have labored incessantly for their very survival.
We cannot, of course, directly test this assumption. However, a study of primitive peoples of today suggests a different conclusion. The Mbuti of central Africa, for instance, spend only a few hours each day in hunting, gathering, and tending to other economic necessities. The rest of their time is spent as they choose. The implication is that the short workday is not peculiar to industrialized societies. Rather, both the extended workday of 1880 and the shorter workday of today are products of different stages of the continuing process of industrialization.
9. Which of the following inferences about industrialization is best supported by the passage above?
(A) People in advanced industrialized societies have more leisure time than those in nonindustrialized societies.
(B) An average workday of twelve hours or more is peculiar to economies in the early stages of industrialization.
(C) Industrialization involves a trade-off between tedious, monotonous jobs and the benefits of increased leisure.
(D) It is likely that the extended workday of an industrializing country will eventually be shortened.
(E) As industrialization progresses, people tend to look for self-fulfillment in leisure rather than work.
10. Which of the following, if true, would most greatly strengthen the argument made in the passage above?
(A) In recent decades, the economy of the Mbuti has been markedly affected by the encroachment of modern civilization.
(B) The life-style of the Mbuti is similar to that of prehistoric humans.
(C) The Mbuti have no words in their language to express the distinction between work activities and leisure activities.
(D) The workday of a European peasant in medieval times averaged between eleven and fifteen hours.
(E) The members of the Shaklik tribe in central Asia have an average workday of ten to twelve hours.
11. Gloria: Those who advocate tuition tax credits for parents whose children attend private schools maintain that people making no use of a government service should not be forced to pay for it. Yet those who choose to buy bottled water rather than drink water from the local supply are not therefore exempt from paying taxes to maintain the local water supply.
Roger: Your argument is illogical. Children are required by law to attend school. Since school attendance is a matter not of choice, but of legal requirement, it is unfair for the government to force some parents to pay for it twice.
Which of the following responses by Gloria would best refute Roger’s charge that her argument is illogical?
(A) Although drinking water is not required by law, it is necessary for all people, and therefore my analogy is appropriate.
(B) Those who can afford the tuition at a high-priced private school can well bear the same tax burden as those whose children attend public schools.
(C) If tuition tax credits are granted, the tax burden on parents who choose public schools will rise to an intolerable level.
(D) The law does not say that parents must send their children to private schools, only that the children must attend some kind of school, whether public or private.
(E) Both bottled water and private schools are luxury items, and it is unfair that some citizens should be able to afford them while others cannot.
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Re: cr 1000 d 3 [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2009, 12:59
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
10.
People assumes: prehistoric humans must have labored incessantly for their very survival.
Author conclude: extend and shorter workdays are products of different stages of the continuing process of industrialization. - therefore prehistoric humans must NOT have labored incessantly for their very survival.

Strengthen: Show that Mbuti had same lifestyle like prehistoric human. Hence B

I disagree and will pick D over B.

The argument is that The implication is that the short workday is not peculiar to industrialized societies. Rather, both the extended workday of 1880 and the shorter workday of today are products of different stages of the continuing process of industrialization.

B says MB and PH have similar life style? If they do have similar life style all that we can say is PH did not work incessantly. You might want to notice that only an assumption about PH was made in the stimulus. How can we support the whole argument that short WH is not peculiar to IS but short WH is a result of I. Also How will Industrialization have an effect on MB who live as a tribe? Unless these tribes living in NYC/SFO

D does a better job. D says E peasants of medieval times had long work hours. Now industrialized nations(European) have shorter work hours. So we can say that shorter work hours are a result of I

The main argument is about the cause of Short WH, not the similarities of MB and PH

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Re: cr 1000 d 3 [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2009, 11:10
9. Which of the following inferences about industrialization is best supported by the passage above?
(A) People in advanced industrialized societies have more leisure time than those in nonindustrialized societies.
(B) An average workday of twelve hours or more is peculiar to economies in the early stages of industrialization.
(C) Industrialization involves a trade-off between tedious, monotonous jobs and the benefits of increased leisure.
(D) It is likely that the extended workday of an industrializing country will eventually be shortened.
(E) As industrialization progresses, people tend to look for self-fulfillment in leisure rather than work.

Lets look at 9 again since I think reason given for B to be incorrect is not entirely true.
Between B and D.

Actually according to CR Bible, for must be true questions, answers restating the stimulus is correct.
Also question states "inferences about industrialization"?
In D
It is likely that the extended workday of an industrializing country will eventually be shortened. In question the extended workday of 1880 and the shorter workday of today, so the workday of the country is already shorter.

So I actually prefer B and am not happy with explanation unless someone can refute the fact that restating stimulus is INCORRECT.

In question:
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Re: cr 1000 d 3 [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2009, 11:19
D is not merely restating the stimulus.

D is suggesting an example of the conclusion and using the word likely.

while B is correct about an economy in the early stages of I having longer work hours, D is more comprehensive.

D talks about the total phase of I and follows from the conclusion.

All said, I see your point and probably the usage of word likely tipped me in favor of D.
Re: cr 1000 d 3   [#permalink] 17 Jan 2009, 11:19
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# Questions 9-10 are based on the following. In the

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