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Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology

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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology [#permalink] New post 24 Jul 2013, 01:50
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I did this question too at 3 AM and damn it: it was really tough and ackward. I' d expect these sort of question during the exam. nasty

At the end of the day: if the number of radio increased and the receiving programs more or less are the same, then the same programs do not reach the entire number of radios.

This is the gist of the argument. People are stressed out on words such as : few if any (clearly means 1 or zero, in a nutshell) losing focus on what really the argument is.


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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology [#permalink] New post 20 Aug 2013, 08:22
(Reference is made to explanation given by Karishma ). Further analysis of option 'A' & 'D'.

'A' can be proved wrong

Total no of RDS radio sets in Verdland= 100.Two counties X & Y in Verdland, where the no of RDS radio sets(no of people owing it) are 20 & 80 respectively. Only County 'X' people receive the RDS Broadcast. If people at 'Y' did not receive the RDS Broadcast earlier but now start receiving the Broadcast signal due to what option 'A' states, the increase in no(by 80) of people receiving RDS program is significant in contradiction to the conclusion.
We simply dont know how many RDS radio sets are available (out of the total in the town) at a place where there was no RDS Broadcast earlier.

Whereas option 'D' cannot be proved wrong. It has to be true even if it sounds too simplistic (Even after discounting any other modifications/ways of receiving RDS Broadcast)

The bottom line is :- No of people receiving the broadcast and not the No of programs received by people. The increase in the No of RDS Radio station broadcasting has no bearing on the no of people receiving the Broadcast, given the above scenario.

Therefore option 'D' seems more plausible.
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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology [#permalink] New post 15 Oct 2013, 01:35
one up for A. The answer choices are very confusing. It's important not to lose focus.
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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology [#permalink] New post 13 Nov 2013, 20:20
I just want to point out choice D talks about all radio programming. The conclusion only discusses special programming. Hopefully that should make it quicker and easier :)
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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology [#permalink] New post 18 Nov 2013, 07:07
I was slow on this (4 min), but the answer should be A.

1) ID question type: Find the Assumption.
2) Deconstruct the Argument:

- RDS is only received by special RDS radios.
- '94 to '96: RDS stations increase from 250 to 600.
- # of RDS radios in the the country same in '96 as '94.
- Conclusion: # of People in country who receive RDS signals did not increase.

Logic gaps in the argument: Just because someone owns an RDS radio doesn't mean he can receive the signal (maybe he's not in range of a station?). If he was out of range of a station in 1994 with an RDS radio living in the outback wilderness, but all of a sudden in 1996 a new station pops up on a mountain top nearby, then he would be able to listen. So we need to find something that assures us that all RDS owners in '94 had reception and can listen to RDS stations.

3) Remind yourself of the goal: Find the Assumption Question type.

4) Wrong from wrong to right (process of elimination):

a. Few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

- Here I'm thinking that this one could be good. It's saying that few NEW stations built after 1994 were built in NEW areas...so that means that RDS coverage remains about the same in the country. It answers our logic gap above. I'll leave this one and analyze my other choices.

b. In 1996 most Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.

- This isn't really providing us with any important information to bridge the logic gap. In 1996, people in range can listen. Whoopty-do. Eliminate B.

c. Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station's listening area.

- So range doesn't change when a station has RDS technology. This doesn't matter as we are trying to bullet-proof our argument against whether or not the NEW stations reached NEW listeners. It doesn't deal with the new stations being built. Eliminate C.

d. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.

- Is this really telling us anything new? We already know that people without special RDS radios can't receive RDS signals. Eliminate D.

e. The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming.
- Irrelevant. Who cares what they broadcast? It has nothing to do with reaching new listeners. Eliminate E.
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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology [#permalink] New post 27 Dec 2014, 13:56
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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology [#permalink] New post 24 Apr 2015, 01:46
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
The question asks for an assumption. (i.e. what is necessarily true to make the conclusion true?)
The gist of the argument is that since no. of radios is about the same, number of people receiving the RDS programming is also the same.

Option D - In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.

- Even if people without RDS equipped radios could access RDS programming (say on neighbor's RDS radio) in 1996, they could have done the same in 1994 as well. They could have received RDS programs from existing radio stations (using neighbors radio). The number of people receiving the programming then may not have changed. So the argument could still hold even if option (D) is false. It is not necessary for it to be true for the argument to be true. Then option (D) is not an assumption.

(At Veritas, we call this method Assumption Negation Technique (ANT). Assumption is something which needs to be true for the conclusion to be true. That is why it is called an assumption. If an option is negated and the conclusion could still hold, it is not an assumption)

On the other hand, if we negate option (A) and say that some RDS radio stations started broadcasting in areas which were not previously reached by RDS but where people owned RDS equipped radios, then the number of people receiving RDS increases in 1996 and the conclusion does not hold. Hence option (A) is the assumption.


I'm sorry for excavated this topic. But I want be clarified more what D is incorrect.
As you explained "they could have done the same in 1994 as well". However, the choice said "after 1994". A possible scenerio could be:
- In 1994, 200.000 Verlanders got these programs because all of them had RDS equipped radios;
- After 1994, 50.000 more Verlanders somehow got these programs even though they did't have RDS equipped radios (maybe by installing a software as you supposed).
- If this is the case, then the argment would not hold anymore.
Please correct me if I'm wrong.

In addition, I was confused by the word "any programs" in choice D and "special programs" in the argument. If "any programs" include special programs and other non-special programs, then D is possibly incorrect because when it is negated, the argument could still hold because 50.000 more Verlanders above could receive the non-special programs.
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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology [#permalink] New post 26 Apr 2015, 22:16
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tronghieu1987 wrote:
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
The question asks for an assumption. (i.e. what is necessarily true to make the conclusion true?)
The gist of the argument is that since no. of radios is about the same, number of people receiving the RDS programming is also the same.

Option D - In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.

- Even if people without RDS equipped radios could access RDS programming (say on neighbor's RDS radio) in 1996, they could have done the same in 1994 as well. They could have received RDS programs from existing radio stations (using neighbors radio). The number of people receiving the programming then may not have changed. So the argument could still hold even if option (D) is false. It is not necessary for it to be true for the argument to be true. Then option (D) is not an assumption.

(At Veritas, we call this method Assumption Negation Technique (ANT). Assumption is something which needs to be true for the conclusion to be true. That is why it is called an assumption. If an option is negated and the conclusion could still hold, it is not an assumption)

On the other hand, if we negate option (A) and say that some RDS radio stations started broadcasting in areas which were not previously reached by RDS but where people owned RDS equipped radios, then the number of people receiving RDS increases in 1996 and the conclusion does not hold. Hence option (A) is the assumption.


I'm sorry for excavated this topic. But I want be clarified more what D is incorrect.
As you explained "they could have done the same in 1994 as well". However, the choice said "after 1994". A possible scenerio could be:
- In 1994, 200.000 Verlanders got these programs because all of them had RDS equipped radios;
- After 1994, 50.000 more Verlanders somehow got these programs even though they did't have RDS equipped radios (maybe by installing a software as you supposed).
- If this is the case, then the argment would not hold anymore.
Please correct me if I'm wrong.

In addition, I was confused by the word "any programs" in choice D and "special programs" in the argument. If "any programs" include special programs and other non-special programs, then D is possibly incorrect because when it is negated, the argument could still hold because 50.000 more Verlanders above could receive the non-special programs.


"Special programming" is "RDS programming" i.e. programs from RDS stations. This is the same as "any programming from the RDS radio stations"

The question asks for an assumption. (i.e. what is necessarily true to make the conclusion true?) If (D) is false but the argument COULD still hold, then (D) is not an assumption. You have to look for ways in which the argument CAN HOLD. Not the ways in which the argument can be made false.

The gist of the argument is that since no. of radios is about the same, number of people receiving the RDS programming is also the same.

Option D - In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.

- Even if people without RDS equipped radios could access RDS programming (say on neighbor's RDS radio) in 1996, they could have done the same in 1994 as well. They could have received RDS programs from existing radio stations (using neighbors radio). The number of people receiving the programming then MAY NOT have changed. So the argument COULD still hold even if option (D) is false. It is not necessary for it to be true for the argument to be true. Then option (D) is not an assumption.
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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology   [#permalink] 26 Apr 2015, 22:16

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