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13 Oct 2010, 18:54
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43% (02:52) correct 57% (02:09) wrong based on 791 sessions

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Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology broadcast special program information that only radios with an RDS feature can receive. Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600. However, since the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994, the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

a. Few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.
b. In 1996 most Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.
c. Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station's listening area.
d. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.
e. The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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09 Dec 2010, 15:28
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piyushagarwal wrote:
I am not at all able to make out what A want to say..

Since this questions seems to have confused people, let's try to break it down.

Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology broadcast special program information that only radios with an RDS feature can receive. Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600. However, since the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994, the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

a. Few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.
b. In 1996 most Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.
c. Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station's listening area.
d. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.
e. The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming.

Assumption question: Find the conclusion. Find out which answer option is essential for the condition to be true.

Premises:
-Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600.
- the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994

Conclusion:the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

Even though new RDS radio stations have been set up, since the number of radios with RDS feature is same in 1996 as in 1994, the author is concluding that the same number of people are receiving RDS programs.

a. Few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

So for his conclusion to be true, the author is assuming that RDS radio stations that began after 1994 did not broadcast to people who were unreachable previously. Hence answer A.

None of the other choices qualify as an assumption.
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Get started with Veritas Prep GMAT On Demand for $199 Veritas Prep Reviews Director Status: Impossible is not a fact. It's an opinion. It's a dare. Impossible is nothing. Affiliations: University of Chicago Booth School of Business Joined: 26 Nov 2009 Posts: 997 Location: Singapore Followers: 20 Kudos [?]: 691 [1] , given: 36 Re: Tough one - Radio stations [#permalink] ### Show Tags 13 Oct 2010, 22:08 1 This post received KUDOS I believe D is straight no ! In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS - this means the group it is considering is wrong / unrepresentative. It is imperative to have a correct receiver. That is the assumption for the things to work. Premise : Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology broadcast special program information that only radios with an RDS feature can receive. A is answer ! amit2k9 wrote: By POE A and D prevail. Using Negation - D : In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS received any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994. helps to explain why the RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same. Hence nullified as it should have wakened the conclusion "the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly", but it dosen't. So, A win's. IMO A. _________________ Please press kudos if you like my post. Manager Joined: 04 May 2009 Posts: 67 Location: Astoria, NYC Followers: 1 Kudos [?]: 10 [1] , given: 1 Re: Tough one - Radio stations [#permalink] ### Show Tags 09 Dec 2010, 15:13 1 This post received KUDOS good question.....made me think I missed the biggest clue for this one "since the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994," the number stayed the same...Given so basically lets take the case no one in Verland upgraded to RDS....so option A furthers this idea and says that few if any of RDS stations broadcast to other towns in hopes of an increase in RDS numbers also.....hence it stayed the same. Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor Joined: 16 Oct 2010 Posts: 6827 Location: Pune, India Followers: 1917 Kudos [?]: 11920 [1] , given: 221 Re: Tough one - Radio stations [#permalink] ### Show Tags 11 Dec 2010, 03:47 1 This post received KUDOS Expert's post Samwong wrote: a. Few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations. Thanks for the explanation. I also have trouble understanding the wording in answer choice A. Can "Few if any" equal to "there maybe some"? If there are some RDS radio stations that did broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations, doesn't it weaken this answer choice? There is a distinction between: Few - Very few A few - Some Few of my friends will go to the dance. (means very few or almost none of them will go) A few of my friends will go to the dance. (means some of my friends will go) So I would consider 'Few if any' to mean 1 or 2 if any at all... That number may not have enough impact to make a difference. _________________ Karishma Veritas Prep | GMAT Instructor My Blog Get started with Veritas Prep GMAT On Demand for$199

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09 Jan 2011, 19:47
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MICKEYXITIN wrote:
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
Samwong wrote:
a. Few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

Thanks for the explanation. I also have trouble understanding the wording in answer choice A.

Can "Few if any" equal to "there maybe some"?

If there are some RDS radio stations that did broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations, doesn't it weaken this answer choice?

There is a distinction between:
Few - Very few
A few - Some
Few of my friends will go to the dance. (means very few or almost none of them will go)
A few of my friends will go to the dance. (means some of my friends will go)

So I would consider 'Few if any' to mean 1 or 2 if any at all... That number may not have enough impact to make a difference.

hi Karishma,
I am confused between A and D. I chose D because i thought about the case that people who dont have the RDS-equipped radios still can have chance to listen to programs brocasted by RDS radio stations (maybe through other people's RDS equipped radios), the situation which weaken the conclusion that "the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly. "

The question asks for an assumption. (i.e. what is necessarily true to make the conclusion true?)
The gist of the argument is that since no. of radios is about the same, number of people receiving the RDS programming is also the same.

Option D - In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.

- Even if people without RDS equipped radios could access RDS programming (say on neighbor's RDS radio) in 1996, they could have done the same in 1994 as well. They could have received RDS programs from existing radio stations (using neighbors radio). The number of people receiving the programming then may not have changed. So the argument could still hold even if option (D) is false. It is not necessary for it to be true for the argument to be true. Then option (D) is not an assumption.

(At Veritas, we call this method Assumption Negation Technique (ANT). Assumption is something which needs to be true for the conclusion to be true. That is why it is called an assumption. If an option is negated and the conclusion could still hold, it is not an assumption)

On the other hand, if we negate option (A) and say that some RDS radio stations started broadcasting in areas which were not previously reached by RDS but where people owned RDS equipped radios, then the number of people receiving RDS increases in 1996 and the conclusion does not hold. Hence option (A) is the assumption.
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Get started with Veritas Prep GMAT On Demand for $199 Veritas Prep Reviews Last edited by VeritasPrepKarishma on 09 Jan 2011, 19:53, edited 1 time in total. Moderator Joined: 01 Sep 2010 Posts: 2994 Followers: 714 Kudos [?]: 5731 [1] , given: 969 Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology [#permalink] ### Show Tags 24 Jul 2013, 02:50 1 This post received KUDOS I did this question too at 3 AM and damn it: it was really tough and ackward. I' d expect these sort of question during the exam. nasty At the end of the day: if the number of radio increased and the receiving programs more or less are the same, then the same programs do not reach the entire number of radios. This is the gist of the argument. People are stressed out on words such as : few if any (clearly means 1 or zero, in a nutshell) losing focus on what really the argument is. Gmat is really crazy _________________ VP Status: There is always something new !! Affiliations: PMI,QAI Global,eXampleCG Joined: 08 May 2009 Posts: 1353 Followers: 17 Kudos [?]: 217 [0], given: 10 Re: Tough one - Radio stations [#permalink] ### Show Tags 13 Oct 2010, 20:08 1 This post was BOOKMARKED By POE A and D prevail. Using Negation - D : In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS received any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994. helps to explain why the RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same. Hence nullified as it should have wakened the conclusion "the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly", but it dosen't. So, A win's. IMO A. _________________ Visit -- http://www.sustainable-sphere.com/ Promote Green Business,Sustainable Living and Green Earth !! Manager Joined: 29 Sep 2008 Posts: 147 Followers: 3 Kudos [?]: 83 [0], given: 1 Re: Tough one - Radio stations [#permalink] ### Show Tags 13 Oct 2010, 21:55 the language is too confusing to make out Retired Moderator Status: 2000 posts! I don't know whether I should feel great or sad about it! LOL Joined: 04 Oct 2009 Posts: 1712 Location: Peru Schools: Harvard, Stanford, Wharton, MIT & HKS (Government) WE 1: Economic research WE 2: Banking WE 3: Government: Foreign Trade and SMEs Followers: 89 Kudos [?]: 783 [0], given: 109 Re: Tough one - Radio stations [#permalink] ### Show Tags 14 Oct 2010, 06:15 nusmavrik wrote: I believe D is straight no ! In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS - this means the group it is considering is wrong / unrepresentative. It is imperative to have a correct receiver. That is the assumption for the things to work. Premise : Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology broadcast special program information that only radios with an RDS feature can receive. A is answer ! Thanks nusmavrik!, Do you agree that this is a 700-level question? If that's true, I was doing it well in the GMAT Prep ! _________________ "Life’s battle doesn’t always go to stronger or faster men; but sooner or later the man who wins is the one who thinks he can." My Integrated Reasoning Logbook / Diary: http://gmatclub.com/forum/my-ir-logbook-diary-133264.html GMAT Club Premium Membership - big benefits and savings Manager Status: Will Retake GMAT Joined: 30 Jul 2010 Posts: 137 Location: India Concentration: General Management, Entrepreneurship Schools: Stanford '13 (D) GPA: 3.11 WE: Information Technology (Computer Software) Followers: 3 Kudos [?]: 15 [0], given: 28 Re: Tough one - Radio stations [#permalink] ### Show Tags 14 Oct 2010, 06:45 I am not at all able to make out what A want to say.. _________________ Re-taking GMAT. Hope the charm works this time.. Manager Joined: 22 Jun 2010 Posts: 212 Followers: 1 Kudos [?]: 90 [0], given: 13 Re: Tough one - Radio stations [#permalink] ### Show Tags 14 Oct 2010, 07:07 it took me over 4 min to pick A, it figure on real test ... Senior Manager Status: Can't give up Joined: 20 Dec 2009 Posts: 320 Followers: 2 Kudos [?]: 26 [0], given: 35 Re: Tough one - Radio stations [#permalink] ### Show Tags 09 Dec 2010, 14:08 A - there was no increase because pple in the area already had RDS equipped radio already, but did not have providers. Trick to assumption questions - try to link words and derive a assumption. Of course the negation technique is always there to back-up! Manager Joined: 17 Sep 2010 Posts: 216 Concentration: General Management, Finance GPA: 3.59 WE: Corporate Finance (Entertainment and Sports) Followers: 3 Kudos [?]: 16 [0], given: 33 Re: Tough one - Radio stations [#permalink] ### Show Tags 09 Dec 2010, 14:15 +1 A. Senior Manager Status: Bring the Rain Joined: 17 Aug 2010 Posts: 406 Location: United States (MD) Concentration: Strategy, Marketing Schools: Michigan (Ross) - Class of 2014 GMAT 1: 730 Q49 V39 GPA: 3.13 WE: Corporate Finance (Aerospace and Defense) Followers: 7 Kudos [?]: 43 [0], given: 46 Re: Tough one - Radio stations [#permalink] ### Show Tags 10 Dec 2010, 12:47 Tough one, but I also came to A. _________________ Manager Joined: 12 Sep 2010 Posts: 224 Followers: 2 Kudos [?]: 20 [0], given: 20 Re: Tough one - Radio stations [#permalink] ### Show Tags 11 Dec 2010, 00:43 a. Few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations. Thanks for the explanation. I also have trouble understanding the wording in answer choice A. Can "Few if any" equal to "there maybe some"? If there are some RDS radio stations that did broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations, doesn't it weaken this answer choice? Manager Status: what we want to do, do it as soon as possible Joined: 24 May 2010 Posts: 114 Location: Vietnam WE 1: 5.0 Followers: 2 Kudos [?]: 55 [0], given: 315 Re: Tough one - Radio stations [#permalink] ### Show Tags 09 Jan 2011, 09:49 VeritasPrepKarishma wrote: Samwong wrote: a. Few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations. Thanks for the explanation. I also have trouble understanding the wording in answer choice A. Can "Few if any" equal to "there maybe some"? If there are some RDS radio stations that did broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations, doesn't it weaken this answer choice? There is a distinction between: Few - Very few A few - Some Few of my friends will go to the dance. (means very few or almost none of them will go) A few of my friends will go to the dance. (means some of my friends will go) So I would consider 'Few if any' to mean 1 or 2 if any at all... That number may not have enough impact to make a difference. hi Karishma, I am confused between A and D. I chose D because i thought about the case that people who dont have the RDS-equipped radios still can have chance to listen to programs brocasted by RDS radio stations (maybe through other people's RDS equipped radios), the situation which weaken the conclusion that "the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly. " Please kindly explain where i made mistake. Many thanks _________________ Consider giving me kudos if you find my explanations helpful so i can learn how to express ideas to people more understandable. Manager Status: I am Midnight's Child ! Joined: 04 Dec 2009 Posts: 148 WE 1: Software Design and Development Followers: 1 Kudos [?]: 60 [0], given: 11 Re: Tough one - Radio stations [#permalink] ### Show Tags 09 Jan 2011, 12:15 Hi Karishma / All others, Code: d. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994. I chose D because otherwise people could just get a programming and their radios will start receiving RDS, thus increasing the number of people getting the special program. That way, the entire argument breaks down. Please tell me if there is a glitch in my reasoning. _________________ Argument : If you love long trips, you love the GMAT. Conclusion : GMAT is long journey. What does the author assume ? Assumption : A long journey is a long trip. GMAT Club Premium Membership - big benefits and savings Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor Joined: 16 Oct 2010 Posts: 6827 Location: Pune, India Followers: 1917 Kudos [?]: 11920 [0], given: 221 Re: Tough one - Radio stations [#permalink] ### Show Tags 09 Jan 2011, 19:51 maddy2u wrote: Hi Karishma / All others, Code: d. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994. I chose D because otherwise people could just get a programming and their radios will start receiving RDS, thus increasing the number of people getting the special program. That way, the entire argument breaks down. Please tell me if there is a glitch in my reasoning. I am sorry maddy2u but I am not very sure what you mean. If the radios are not equipped with RDS, how could they get RDS programming? Do you mean using someone else's radio? Then my explanation above may help. If you mean that they could kind of install a software that supports reception of RDS on their radios (just taking a shot here!) or something, they could have done the same in 1994. How do you prove that the number of people receiving RDS programming has changed from 1994 to 1996? Only if you do that can you break the argument. _________________ Karishma Veritas Prep | GMAT Instructor My Blog Get started with Veritas Prep GMAT On Demand for$199

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09 Jan 2011, 22:31
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
MICKEYXITIN wrote:
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:

The question asks for an assumption. (i.e. what is necessarily true to make the conclusion true?)
The gist of the argument is that since no. of radios is about the same, number of people receiving the RDS programming is also the same.

Option D - In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.

- Even if people without RDS equipped radios could access RDS programming (say on neighbor's RDS radio) in 1996, they could have done the same in 1994 as well. They could have received RDS programs from existing radio stations (using neighbors radio). The number of people receiving the programming then may not have changed. So the argument could still hold even if option (D) is false. It is not necessary for it to be true for the argument to be true. Then option (D) is not an assumption.

(At Veritas, we call this method Assumption Negation Technique (ANT). Assumption is something which needs to be true for the conclusion to be true. That is why it is called an assumption. If an option is negated and the conclusion could still hold, it is not an assumption)

On the other hand, if we negate option (A) and say that some RDS radio stations started broadcasting in areas which were not previously reached by RDS but where people owned RDS equipped radios, then the number of people receiving RDS increases in 1996 and the conclusion does not hold. Hence option (A) is the assumption.

Thank you very much Karishma. Your explanation is convincing. Now i understand why D is inccorect now. hope i can learn the way you reason to eliminate incorrect answers of other assumption questions should any chance ever rise.
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