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RC: Study of Embryonic Development

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RC: Study of Embryonic Development [#permalink] New post 13 Jun 2008, 13:48
Please any strategies to resolve RCs of following type:

Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they

separated an invertebrate animal embryo into two parts

at an early stage of its life, it would survive and develop

as two normal embryos. This led them to believe that the

(5) cells in the early embryo are undetermined in the sense

that each cell has the potential to develop in a variety of

different ways. Later biologists found that the situation

was not so simple. It matters in which plane the embryo

is cut. If it is cut in a plane different from the one used

(10) by the early investigators, it will not form two whole

embryos.

A debate arose over what exactly was happening.

Which embryo cells are determined, just when do theybecome

irreversibly committed to their fates, and what

(15) are the morphogenetic determinants that tell a cell

what to become? But the debate could not be resolved

because no one was able to ask the crucial questions

in a form in which they could be pursued productively.

Recent discoveries in molecular biology, however, have

(20) opened up prospects for a resolution of the debate.

Now investigators think they know at least some of the

molecules that act as morphogenetic determinants in

early development. They have been able o show that,

in a sense, cell determination begins even before an egg

(25) is fertilized.

Studying sea urchins, biologist Paul Gross found

that an unfertilized egg contains substances that function

as morphogenetic determinants. They are located

in the cytoplasm of the egg cell; i.e., in that part of the

(30) cells protoplasm that lies outside of the nucleus. In the

unfertilized egg, the substances are inactive and are not

distributed homogeneously. When the egg is fertilized,

the substances become active and, presumably, govern

the behavior of the genes they interact with. Since the

(35) substances are unevenly distributed in the egg, when the

fertilized egg divides, the resulting cells are different

from the start and so can be qualitatively different in

their own gene activity.

The substances that Gross studied are maternal

(40) messenger RNAs --products of certain of the maternal

genes. He and other biologists studying a wide variety

of organisms have found that these particular RNAs

direct, in large part, the synthesis of histones, a class

of proteins that bind to DNA. Once synthesized, the

(45) histones move into the cell nucleus, where section of

DNA wrap around them to form a structure that resembles

beads, or knots, on a string. The beads are DNA

segments wrapped around the histones; the string is the

intervening DNA. And it is the structure of these beaded

(50) DNA strings that guides the fate of the cells in which

they are located.



Q1: It can be inferred from the passage that the morphogenetic determinants present in the early
embryo are

A. located in the nucleus of the embryo cells

B. evenly distributed unless the embryo is not developing normally

C. inactive until the embryo cells become irreversibly committed to their final function

D. identical to those that were already present in the unfertilized egg

E. present in larger quantities than is necessary for the development of a single individual



Q:2 The main topic of the passage is

A. the early development of embryos of lower marine organisms

B. the main contribution of modern embryology to molecular biology

C. the role of molecular biology in disproving older theories of embryonic development

D. cell determination as an issue in the study of embryonic development

E. scientific dogma as a factor in the recent debate over the value of molecular biology


Q:3 According to the passage, when biologists believed that the cells in the early embryo were
undetermined, they made which of the following mistakes?

A. They did not attempt to replicate the original experiment of separating an embryo into two parts.

B. They did not realize that there was a connection between the issue of cell determination and the outcome of the separation experiment.

C. They assumed that the results of experiments on embryos did not depend on the particular animal species used for such experiments.

D. They assumed that it was crucial to perform the separation experiment at an early stage in the embryos life.

E. They assumed that different ways of separating an embryo into two parts would be equivalent as far as the fate of the two parts was concerned.

Q:4It can be inferred from the passage that the initial production of histones after an egg is fertilized
takes place

A. in the cytoplasm

B. in the maternal genes

C. throughout the protoplasm

D. in the beaded portions of the DNA strings

E. in certain sections of the cell nucleus

Q:5 It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is dependent on the fertilization of
an egg?

A. Copying of maternal genes to produce maternal messenger RNAs

B. Sythesis of proteins called histones

C. Division of a cell into its nucleus and the cytoplasm

D. Determination of the egg cells potential for division

E. Generation of all of a cells morphogenetic determinants

Q:6 According to the passage, the morphogenetic determinants present in the unfertilized egg cell are
which of the following?

A. Proteins bound to the nucleus

B. Histones

C. Maternal messenger RNAs

D. Cytoplasm

E. Nonbeaded intervening DNA
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Re: RC: Study of Embryonic Development [#permalink] New post 30 Dec 2009, 13:40
cdeabe
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He that is in me > he that is in the world. - source 1 John 4:4

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Re: RC: Study of Embryonic Development [#permalink] New post 01 Jan 2010, 00:20
Not an easy passage to work on... though the strategy is same.. look for the qualifiers and develop a reasoning habit while reading..( its tough though)
CDEABE are my answers.
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Re: RC: Study of Embryonic Development [#permalink] New post 21 Feb 2010, 15:17
My answers are CDEABE.

Question no 6 was very tough for me. I spent 5-6min to answer that once. I chose C initially.
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Re: RC: Study of Embryonic Development [#permalink] New post 22 Feb 2010, 06:47
CBEDBE :cry:
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One Final Try.......

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Re: RC: Study of Embryonic Development [#permalink] New post 24 Feb 2010, 08:38
DCEBBD.
Please post the OA.
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Re: RC: Study of Embryonic Development [#permalink] New post 24 Feb 2010, 10:37
1.5 years later? I doubt that.
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Re: RC: Study of Embryonic Development [#permalink] New post 24 Feb 2010, 14:41
Good catch :-D . I was looking for the new posts and found this. Should be careful next time. Thanks.
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Re: RC: Study of Embryonic Development [#permalink] New post 04 Mar 2010, 14:13
tough one.

CCEBEE...
Re: RC: Study of Embryonic Development   [#permalink] 04 Mar 2010, 14:13
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