Recent unexpectedly heavy rainfalls in the metropolitan area : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# Recent unexpectedly heavy rainfalls in the metropolitan area

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Recent unexpectedly heavy rainfalls in the metropolitan area [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2005, 17:51
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Recent unexpectedly heavy rainfalls in the metropolitan area have filled the reservoirs and streams; water rationing, therefore, will not be necessary this summer.

Which one of the following, if true, most undermines the authorâ€™s prediction?

(A) Water rationing was imposed in the city in three of the last five years.

(B) A small part of the cityâ€™s water supply is obtained from deep underground water systems that are not reached by rainwater.

(C) The water companyâ€™s capacity to pump water to customers has not kept up with the increased demand created by population growth in the metropolitan area.

(D) The long-range weather forecast predicts lower-than-average temperatures for this summer.

(E) In most years the city receives less total precipitation in the summer than it receives in any other season.
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10 Mar 2005, 18:15
(B).. if (b) is true water rationing will be required irrespective of Rain.
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11 Mar 2005, 11:04
"C"...."b" says only small part is dependent on water wells, so doesn't effect overall too much. I think bet C and B, C most weakens.
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11 Mar 2005, 11:34
C. Even though you have enough water reserve but you won't have the capacity to pump the water and supply usage.
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11 Mar 2005, 13:39
B ties the whole thing together.
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11 Mar 2005, 13:44
I would go with 'C' becos 'B' mentions only a small part of the city is affected
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11 Mar 2005, 19:19
Hello, guys
could you help me?

why did not you think E.
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11 Mar 2005, 20:23
deleting the post because it would be a waste of time for others to read the absurd reasoning that I was thinking of!

Last edited by Vithal on 12 Mar 2005, 23:15, edited 1 time in total.
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12 Mar 2005, 08:46
(A) Water rationing was imposed in the city in three of the last five years.
- Out of scope

(B) A small part of the cityâ€™s water supply is obtained from deep underground water systems that are not reached by rainwater.
- Out of scope

(C) The water companyâ€™s capacity to pump water to customers has not kept up with the increased demand created by population growth in the metropolitan area.
- Nothing to do with the rainfall eliminating the need for water rationing

(D) The long-range weather forecast predicts lower-than-average temperatures for this summer.
- not important

(E) In most years the city receives less total precipitation in the summer than it receives in any other season.
- If there is less precipitatoin, there is less rainfall in the summer. If this is the case, then water-rationing is still nescessary in the summer.

E it is.
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12 Mar 2005, 08:48
Both B and C does not have anything to do with the rainfall eliminating the need for water rationing. The conclusion was derived from heavy rainfall which filled up the reservoirs, and so a choice attacking this area would be best.
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12 Mar 2005, 08:51
I'm sorry for the multiple posts. I just wanted to add another point which came to my head.

The conclusion of this passage, was water-rationing is not nescessary this summer.. There is a limiting word here, 'this summer'. Not any other summers, but this coming one.

(B) says "A small part of the cityâ€™s water supply is obtained from deep underground water systems that are not reached by rainwater. ". If this is true, then for any other summer, water rationing is still a need, not jus this summer, because it's not only this summer that this small part of the city obtains its water supply from deep underground water systems.

(C) says "The water companyâ€™s capacity to pump water to customers has not kept up with the increased demand created by population growth in the metropolitan area. " Similarly, it's not only this summer that the water company faced a problem with increased demand.

So (B) and (C) do not satisfy the liminting word in the conclusion.
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12 Mar 2005, 12:20
I first thought it could be C,

but after reading the answers, I was convinced by ywilfred, so I would also go for A
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12 Mar 2005, 22:31
Fact: We have water in the reservoirs and streams now.
Conclusion: No water rationing needed this summer.

(A) Water rationing was imposed in the city in three of the last five years.
In those three years there may not have been a big rainfall and we may not have water in our reservoirs. But we have water now.

(B) A small part of the cityâ€™s water supply is obtained from deep underground water systems that are not reached by rainwater.
If the underground water is dried up than rationing may be needed for this small part of the city. However nobody said that it is dried up.

(C) The water companyâ€™s capacity to pump water to customers has not kept up with the increased demand created by population growth in the metropolitan area.
We have water, but we don't have the pumps to pump water to customers. Therefore we still need to limit the water usage. Here's our weakening.

(D) The long-range weather forecast predicts lower-than-average temperatures for this summer.
It's cooler than water demand may be smaller, strengthens the argument.

(E) In most years the city receives less total precipitation in the summer than it receives in any other season.
Even if it is true we still have lots of water in our reservoir now to tie us through the dry summer. So we may not need water rationing.

(C) it is.
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12 Mar 2005, 23:18
ywilfred wrote:
I'm sorry for the multiple posts. I just wanted to add another point which came to my head.

The conclusion of this passage, was water-rationing is not nescessary this summer.. There is a limiting word here, 'this summer'. Not any other summers, but this coming one.

(B) says "A small part of the cityâ€™s water supply is obtained from deep underground water systems that are not reached by rainwater. ". If this is true, then for any other summer, water rationing is still a need, not jus this summer, because it's not only this summer that this small part of the city obtains its water supply from deep underground water systems.

So (B) and (C) do not satisfy the liminting word in the conclusion.

Hello, thanks

But your weakening of B just weakens the choice E.

This summber, in choice E, saying 'most years'.

The OA is indeed C. HongHu give us a better explantion.

Last edited by chunjuwu on 12 Mar 2005, 23:21, edited 1 time in total.
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12 Mar 2005, 23:20
HongHu wrote:
Fact: We have water in the reservoirs and streams now.
Conclusion: No water rationing needed this summer.

(A) Water rationing was imposed in the city in three of the last five years.
In those three years there may not have been a big rainfall and we may not have water in our reservoirs. But we have water now.

(B) A small part of the cityâ€™s water supply is obtained from deep underground water systems that are not reached by rainwater.
If the underground water is dried up than rationing may be needed for this small part of the city. However nobody said that it is dried up.

(C) The water companyâ€™s capacity to pump water to customers has not kept up with the increased demand created by population growth in the metropolitan area.
We have water, but we don't have the pumps to pump water to customers. Therefore we still need to limit the water usage. Here's our weakening.

(D) The long-range weather forecast predicts lower-than-average temperatures for this summer.
It's cooler than water demand may be smaller, strengthens the argument.

(E) In most years the city receives less total precipitation in the summer than it receives in any other season.
Even if it is true we still have lots of water in our reservoir now to tie us through the dry summer. So we may not need water rationing.

(C) it is.

Honghu,
we have to remember that the conclusion from the passages says 'this summer'. This really limits our reasoning when we pick a choice.
You said "We have water, but we don't have the pumps to pump water to customers. Therefore we still need to limit the water usage. Here's our weakening.". Now let's ask ourselves if this is a problem that just surfaced this summer ?? Maybe, maybe not. It's not a problem limited to just one season this year. On this basis, C is refutable.
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12 Mar 2005, 23:28
No. You understood the term "this year" as if water rationing is something special this year. I read it as not needing water rationing is something special this year. Read it again. "Recent unexpectedly heavy rainfalls in the metropolitan area have filled the reservoirs and streams; water rationing, therefore, will not be necessary this summer. " What do you get? Without the unexpected rainfalls, it is likely that we will have water rationing this summer. Water rationing is the norm, and not needing it is the exception. We need to explain why this exception will not happen. Because something that needs to be changed has not changed, even if we've got the water. What is it that needs to be changed but not changed? The ability of changing the availability of water into the supply of water to customers houses.
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13 Mar 2005, 08:02
Point noted. Thanks, Honghu, it's been great discussing questions with you
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13 Mar 2005, 08:53
C for the lack of capacity to pump water and it doesn;t matter how much water is stored if it cannot be pumped ..
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