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Recent years have brought minority-owned businesses in the

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Senior Manager
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Recent years have brought minority-owned businesses in the [#permalink] New post 08 Dec 2007, 11:36
Recent years have brought minority-owned
businesses in the United States unprecedented
opportunities-as well as new and significant risks.
Civil rights activists have long argued that one of
(5) the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics, and
other minority groups have difficulty establishing
themselves in business is that they lack access to
the sizable orders and subcontracts that are gener-
ated by large companies. Now Congress, in appar-
(10) ent agreement, has required by law that businesses
awarded federal contracts of more than $500,000
do their best to find minority subcontractors and
record their efforts to do so on forms filed with the
government. Indeed, some federal and local agen-
(15) cies have gone so far as to set specific percentage
goals for apportioning parts of public works con-
tracts to minority enterprises.
Corporate response appears to have been sub-
stantial. According to figures collected in 1977,
(20) the total of corporate contracts with minority busi-
nesses rose from $77 million in 1972 to $1. lbillion
in 1977. The projected total of corporate contracts
with minority businesses for the early 1980's is
estimated to be over 53 billion per year with no
(25) letup anticipated in the next decade.
Promising as it is for minority businesses, this
increased patronage poses dangers for them, too.
First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and
overextending themselves financially, since most
(30) are small concerns and, unlike large businesses,
they often need to make substantial investments in
new plants, staff, equipment, and the like in order
to perform work subcontracted to them. If, there-
after, their subcontracts are for some reason
(35) reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling
fixed expenses. The world of corporate purchasing
can be frustrating for small entrepreneurs who get
requests for elaborate formal estimates and bids.
Both consume valuable time and resources, and a
(40) small company's efforts must soon result in
orders, or both the morale and the financial health
of the business will suffer.
A second risk is that White-owned companies
may seek to cash in on the increasing apportion-
(45) ments through formation of joint ventures with
minority-owned concerns. Of course, in many
instances there are legitimate reasons for joint
ventures; clearly, White and minority enterprises
can team up to acquire business that neither could
(50) acquire alone. But civil rights groups and minority
business owners have complained to Congress about
minorities being set up as "fronts" with White back-
ing, rather than being accepted as full partners in
legitimate joint ventures.
(55) Third, a minority enterprise that secures the
business of one large corporate customer often run
the danger of becoming--and remaining-dependent.
Even in the best of circumstances, fierce compe-
tition from larger, more established companies
(60) makes it difficult for small concerns to broaden
their customer bases: when such firms have nearly
guaranteed orders from a single corporate bene-
factor, they may truly have to struggle against
complacency arising from their current success.



1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A present a commonplace idea and its inaccuracies
B describe a situation and its potential drawbacks
C propose a temporary solution to a problem
D analyze a frequent source of disagreement
E explore the implications of a finding

2. The passage supplies information that would answer which of the following questions?

A What federal agencies have set percentage goals for the use of minority-owned businesses in public works contracts?
B To which government agencies must businesses awarded federal contracts report their efforts to find minority subcontractors?
C How widespread is the use of minority-owned concerns as "fronts" by White backers seeking to obtain subcontracts?
D How many more minority-owned businesses were there in 1977 than in 1972?
E What is one set of conditions under which a small business might find itself financially overextended?


3. According to the passage, civil rights activists maintain that one disadvantage under which minority- owned businesses have traditionally had to labor is that they have

A been especially vulnerable to governmental mismanagement of the economy
B been denied bank loans at rates comparable to those afforded larger competitors
C not had sufficient opportunity to secure business created by large corporations
D not been able to advertise in those media that reach large numbers of potential customers
E not had adequate representation in the centers of government power


4. The passage suggests that the failure of a large business to have its bids for subcontracts result quickly in orders might cause it to

A experience frustration but not serious financial harm
B face potentially crippling fixed expenses
C have to record its efforts on forms filed with the government
D increase its spending with minority subcontractors
E revise its procedure for making bids for federal contracts and subcontracts


5. The author implies that a minority-owned concern that does the greater part of its business with one large corporate customer should

A avoid competition with larger, more established concerns by not expanding
B concentrate on securing even more business from that corporation
C try to expand its customer base to avoid becoming dependent on the corporation
D pass on some of the work to be done for the corporation to other minority-owned concerns
E use its influence with the corporation to promote subcontracting with other minority concerns

6. It can be inferred from the passage that, compared with the requirements of law, the percentage goals set by "some federal and local agencies "(lines 14-15) are

A more popular with large corporations
B more specific
C less controversial
D less expensive to enforce
E easier to comply with


7. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the author's assertion that, in the 1970's, corporate response to federal requirements (lines 18-19) was substantial

A Corporate contracts with minority-owned businesses totaled $2 billion in 1979.
B Between 1970 and 1972, corporate contracts with minority-owned businesses declined by 25 percent.
C The figures collected in 1977 underrepresented the extent of corporate contracts with minority-owned businesses.
D The estimate of corporate spending with minority-owned businesses in 1980 is approximately $10 million too high.
E The $1.1 billion represented the same percentage of total corporate spending in 1977 as did $77 million in 1972.

8. The author would most likely agree with which of the following statements about corporate response to working with minority subcontractors?

A Annoyed by the proliferation of "front" organizations, corporations are likely to reduce their efforts to work with minority-owned subcontractors in the near future.
B Although corporations showed considerable interest in working with minority businesses in the 1970's, their aversion to government paperwork made them reluctant to pursue many government contracts.
C The significant response of corporations in the 1970's is likely to be sustained and conceivably be increased throughout the 1980's.
D Although corporations are eager to cooperate with minority-owned businesses, a shortage of capital in the 1970's made substantial response impossible.
E The enormous corporate response has all but eliminated the dangers of overexpansion that used to plague small minority-owned businesses.
____________________________

pLEASE GIVE EXPLANATIONS.
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 [#permalink] New post 10 Dec 2007, 10:37
1. B
2. E
3. C
4. A
5. C
6. B
7. E
8. C

How did I do? :o
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Re: rc-8 QUESTIONS [#permalink] New post 12 Dec 2007, 09:35
Recent years have brought minority-owned
businesses in the United States unprecedented
opportunities-as well as new and significant risks.
Civil rights activists have long argued that one of
(5) the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics, and
other minority groups have difficulty establishing
themselves in business is that they lack access to
the sizable orders and subcontracts that are gener-
ated by large companies. Now Congress, in appar-
(10) ent agreement, has required by law that businesses
awarded federal contracts of more than $500,000
do their best to find minority subcontractors and
record their efforts to do so on forms filed with the
government. Indeed, some federal and local agen-
(15) cies have gone so far as to set specific percentage
goals for apportioning parts of public works con-
tracts to minority enterprises.
Corporate response appears to have been sub-
stantial. According to figures collected in 1977,
(20) the total of corporate contracts with minority busi-
nesses rose from $77 million in 1972 to $1. lbillion
in 1977. The projected total of corporate contracts
with minority businesses for the early 1980's is
estimated to be over 53 billion per year with no
(25) letup anticipated in the next decade.
Promising as it is for minority businesses, this
increased patronage poses dangers for them, too.
First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and
overextending themselves financially, since most
(30) are small concerns and, unlike large businesses,
they often need to make substantial investments in
new plants, staff, equipment, and the like in order
to perform work subcontracted to them. If, there-
after, their subcontracts are for some reason
(35) reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling
fixed expenses. The world of corporate purchasing
can be frustrating for small entrepreneurs who get
requests for elaborate formal estimates and bids.
Both consume valuable time and resources, and a
(40) small company's efforts must soon result in
orders, or both the morale and the financial health
of the business will suffer.
A second risk is that White-owned companies
may seek to cash in on the increasing apportion-
(45) ments through formation of joint ventures with
minority-owned concerns. Of course, in many
instances there are legitimate reasons for joint
ventures; clearly, White and minority enterprises
can team up to acquire business that neither could
(50) acquire alone. But civil rights groups and minority
business owners have complained to Congress about
minorities being set up as "fronts" with White back-
ing, rather than being accepted as full partners in
legitimate joint ventures.
(55) Third, a minority enterprise that secures the
business of one large corporate customer often run
the danger of becoming--and remaining-dependent.
Even in the best of circumstances, fierce compe-
tition from larger, more established companies
(60) makes it difficult for small concerns to broaden
their customer bases: when such firms have nearly
guaranteed orders from a single corporate bene-
factor, they may truly have to struggle against
complacency arising from their current success.



1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A present a commonplace idea and its inaccuracies
B describe a situation and its potential drawbacks
C propose a temporary solution to a problem
D analyze a frequent source of disagreement
E explore the implications of a finding

B. The only doubt was between B and E. Anyway we don't see any finding.

2. The passage supplies information that would answer which of the following questions?

A What federal agencies have set percentage goals for the use of minority-owned businesses in public works contracts?
B To which government agencies must businesses awarded federal contracts report their efforts to find minority subcontractors?
C How widespread is the use of minority-owned concerns as "fronts" by White backers seeking to obtain subcontracts?
D How many more minority-owned businesses were there in 1977 than in 1972?
E What is one set of conditions under which a small business might find itself financially overextended?

E. some types of investments are described


3. According to the passage, civil rights activists maintain that one disadvantage under which minority- owned businesses have traditionally had to labor is that they have

A been especially vulnerable to governmental mismanagement of the economy
B been denied bank loans at rates comparable to those afforded larger competitors
C not had sufficient opportunity to secure business created by large corporations
D not been able to advertise in those media that reach large numbers of potential customers
E not had adequate representation in the centers of government power

B. it is said that they may encounter difficulties in buying resources. it is tricky, since C and E use a vocabulary similar to that of the text although they mean something different.

4. The passage suggests that the failure of a large business to have its bids for subcontracts result quickly in orders might cause it to

A experience frustration but not serious financial harm
B face potentially crippling fixed expenses
C have to record its efforts on forms filed with the government
D increase its spending with minority subcontractors
E revise its procedure for making bids for federal contracts and subcontracts

E. it is the only logic answer

5. The author implies that a minority-owned concern that does the greater part of its business with one large corporate customer should

A avoid competition with larger, more established concerns by not expanding
B concentrate on securing even more business from that corporation
C try to expand its customer base to avoid becoming dependent on the corporation
D pass on some of the work to be done for the corporation to other minority-owned concerns
E use its influence with the corporation to promote subcontracting with other minority concerns

C. It is stated in the last paragraph

6. It can be inferred from the passage that, compared with the requirements of law, the percentage goals set by "some federal and local agencies "(lines 14-15) are

A more popular with large corporations
B more specific
C less controversial
D less expensive to enforce
E easier to comply with

B. it is said " specific goals"

7. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the author's assertion that, in the 1970's, corporate response to federal requirements (lines 18-19) was substantial

A Corporate contracts with minority-owned businesses totaled $2 billion in 1979.
B Between 1970 and 1972, corporate contracts with minority-owned businesses declined by 25 percent.
C The figures collected in 1977 underrepresented the extent of corporate contracts with minority-owned businesses.
D The estimate of corporate spending with minority-owned businesses in 1980 is approximately $10 million too high.
E The $1.1 billion represented the same percentage of total corporate spending in 1977 as did $77 million in 1972.

E. the only doubt could arise from B, but we don't have to care for what happened between 70-72.

8. The author would most likely agree with which of the following statements about corporate response to working with minority subcontractors?

A Annoyed by the proliferation of "front" organizations, corporations are likely to reduce their efforts to work with minority-owned subcontractors in the near future.
B Although corporations showed considerable interest in working with minority businesses in the 1970's, their aversion to government paperwork made them reluctant to pursue many government contracts.
C The significant response of corporations in the 1970's is likely to be sustained and conceivably be increased throughout the 1980's.
D Although corporations are eager to cooperate with minority-owned businesses, a shortage of capital in the 1970's made substantial response impossible.
E The enormous corporate response has all but eliminated the dangers of overexpansion that used to plague small minority-owned businesses.

C. it is stated
____________________________

pLEASE GIVE EXPLANATIONS.[/quote]
Director
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 [#permalink] New post 12 Dec 2007, 10:07
can we get the OAs for this one?
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 [#permalink] New post 15 Dec 2007, 01:02
1b
2e
3c
4d
5c
6b
7e
8c
CEO
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 [#permalink] New post 17 Dec 2007, 22:58
1:B
2:E
3:C
4:D
5:C
6:B
7:E
8:C

4 is the only one im not sure about. A and B I believe are stated for small/minority businesses. So I guessed D b/c it seemed to make the most sense
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 [#permalink] New post 18 Dec 2007, 02:01
Here is mine:

1.B
2.E
3.C
4.B
5.D
6.A
7.E
8.C

Waiting for OA. Thanks
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 [#permalink] New post 19 Dec 2007, 12:49
what are the OA's?
  [#permalink] 19 Dec 2007, 12:49
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