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Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new

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Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new [#permalink] New post 22 Aug 2011, 10:39
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Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new insect species, most of them as common or more common than the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, which live on the bottom of oceans or within icebergs.

* (A) most of them as common or more common than the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, which live
* (B) most of them at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, and living
* (C) most of them at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, living
* (D) mostly at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, which live
* (E) mostly as common or more common than the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, living

Hi can anyone please outline the grammatical structure of this sentence. What category does each clause belong to.

Recently (Adv. that describes noun clause) ,Entomologists (Subject), have (main verb)....what then ? where are the conjunctions ? I am a bit lost.

Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new insect species, most of them at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, living on the bottom of oceans or within icebergs.

Btw this sentence comes from Knewton online test prep

many thanks
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Re: Gramatical structure of this sentence [#permalink] New post 22 Aug 2011, 11:02
The two parts of the sentences i.e. "most of them at least as common as the birch aphid"
and "a tree-dwelling insect" describe the "new insect species" and are considered non essential in the complete sentence. Hence there are no conjunctions.

As the scientists have already found the new species their is no ambiguity in their identification. The entire sentence can be rewritten without the above two sentences.
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Re: Gramatical structure of this sentence [#permalink] New post 22 Aug 2011, 13:15
hafgola wrote:
Recently (Adv. that describes noun clause) ,Entomologists (Subject), have (main verb),most of them as common or more common than the birch aphid,(non-essential modifier) a tree-dwelling insect, (non-essential modifier) which live on the bottom of oceans or within icebergs.


hafgola wrote:
Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new insect species, most of them as common or more common than the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, which live on the bottom of oceans or within icebergs.

* (A) most of them as common or more common than the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, which live
* (B) most of them at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, and living
* (C) most of them at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, living
* (D) mostly at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, which live
* (E) mostly as common or more common than the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, living


which is used to refer to the noun immediately preceding the which. Here, which will refer to insect. But insect is not living on the bottom of oceans or within icebergs, insect species is.
Eliminate A and D.

For B, whenever we use AND after comma make sure there are two main clause before and after AND. Here since we have same subject use of comma and AND is wrong. Eliminate B.

For E, mostly as common or more common is just unidiomatic.

OA C. Also, Living forms an adverbial modifier.
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Re: Gramatical structure of this sentence [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2011, 00:44
thanks, is there anyway for me to recognize how "most of them at least..." becomes a modifying clause, is most of the some sort of a indicator ? subordinating conjunction ?

or should I focus on the fact that there is no subject verb agreement in the clause
"most of them at least as common as the birch aphid...living on the bottom of oceans..." (modifying clause that modifies "species")

I could be tempted to think that. "most of them" is the subject, and living the main verb, is the error there that Living can´t it be the main verb because it is functioning as an Adverb (resent Participle)? -ing form

can -ing forms maybe never function as a main verb ??? (that would be a comfortable rule to remember:)

thanks
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Re: Gramatical structure of this sentence [#permalink] New post 23 Aug 2011, 01:59
The following links may help to all those are having doubts in modifier:
1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0jWmrK5BLtw
2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GElSqdp5iTc
3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X48hAnuxEaw
4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mo5ZXrUNBbc
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Re: Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new [#permalink] New post 23 Jul 2015, 10:21
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new [#permalink] New post 24 Jul 2015, 09:55
Expert's post
The gist of the passage is that, 1. Scientists have discovered a number of new insect species (plural); these insects live in oceans or icebergs; they are at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dweller.

* (A) most of them as common or more common than the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, which live --- it should be ‘most of them at least as common as'

* (B) most of them at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, and living --- Misses the symmetrical parallelism by using a noun on one side of the parallel marker ‘and’; on the other side, a participial phrase is used.

* (C) most of them at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, living -- correct combination; living here modifies the new species.

* (D) mostly at least as common as the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, which live -- which live is wrong modification and verb number

* (E) mostly as common or more common than the birch aphid, a tree-dwelling insect, living – missing the idiom as common as

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Re: Recently, entomologists have discovered a number of new   [#permalink] 24 Jul 2015, 09:55
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