Find all School-related info fast with the new School-Specific MBA Forum

It is currently 21 Oct 2014, 17:39

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Events & Promotions

Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

Recently implemented

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:
2 KUDOS received
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 28 Mar 2009
Posts: 84
Followers: 3

Kudos [?]: 33 [2] , given: 0

Recently implemented [#permalink] New post 04 Jun 2009, 19:29
2
This post received
KUDOS
8
This post was
BOOKMARKED
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  45% (medium)

Question Stats:

55% (02:01) correct 45% (01:02) wrong based on 753 sessions
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising




This is question #134 of the 12th ed OG. I don't understand why in option (D), the OE states: "lowered before fatigue illogically suggests that fatigue actually increased"

On a separate note, what is the difference between "among" and "amongst" in GMAT context? Is there any particular rule pertaining to these two words?

Thanks for your valued views.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
Kaplan GMAT Prep Discount CodesKnewton GMAT Discount CodesManhattan GMAT Discount Codes
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
Joined: 15 Jan 2008
Posts: 295
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 22 [0], given: 3

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 05 Jun 2009, 07:33
while is needed as we signalling that it raised something..
reduced lowered fatigue illogically suggests increased fatigue..

dont forget the parallel word.. reduced...sickness.. sleeping.. and fatigue..


clear ?
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
Joined: 10 Dec 2008
Posts: 484
Location: United States
GMAT 1: 760 Q49 V44
GPA: 3.9
Followers: 29

Kudos [?]: 121 [0], given: 12

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 05 Jun 2009, 08:04
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising




This is question #134 of the 12th ed OG. I don't understand why in option (D), the OE states: "lowered before fatigue illogically suggests that fatigue actually increased"

On a separate note, what is the difference between "among" and "amongst" in GMAT context? Is there any particular rule pertaining to these two words?

Thanks for your valued views.


I thought the answer was A), since have reduced is carried throughout the sentence... so that it becomes have reduced fatigue among shift workers, which I don't find a problem with. D introduces "lowered fatigue" so I wonder if its inappropriate to say reduce fatigue. I dunno :cry:
SVP
SVP
avatar
Joined: 21 Jul 2006
Posts: 1551
Followers: 8

Kudos [?]: 232 [0], given: 1

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 05 Jun 2009, 08:18
bipolarbear wrote:
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising




This is question #134 of the 12th ed OG. I don't understand why in option (D), the OE states: "lowered before fatigue illogically suggests that fatigue actually increased"

On a separate note, what is the difference between "among" and "amongst" in GMAT context? Is there any particular rule pertaining to these two words?

Thanks for your valued views.


I thought the answer was A), since have reduced is carried throughout the sentence... so that it becomes have reduced fatigue among shift workers, which I don't find a problem with. D introduces "lowered fatigue" so I wonder if its inappropriate to say reduce fatigue. I dunno :cry:



it's inappropriate to say "lowered fatigue" because we already have "reduced" before sickness. So the same "reduced" is applicable to all the nouns in the list. So using "lowered" is simply redundant because it has the same meaning as that of "reduced."
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 28 Mar 2009
Posts: 84
Followers: 3

Kudos [?]: 33 [0], given: 0

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 05 Jun 2009, 18:50
Neochronic wrote:
while is needed as we signalling that it raised something..
reduced lowered fatigue illogically suggests increased fatigue..

dont forget the parallel word.. reduced...sickness.. sleeping.. and fatigue..


clear ?



Thanks for your explanation, Neochronic. You wouldn't happen to know, based on your experience in GMAT context, the differences of usage between "among" and "amongst", would you?
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
Joined: 10 Dec 2008
Posts: 484
Location: United States
GMAT 1: 760 Q49 V44
GPA: 3.9
Followers: 29

Kudos [?]: 121 [0], given: 12

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 05 Jun 2009, 18:54
Quote:

it's inappropriate to say "lowered fatigue" because we already have "reduced" before sickness. So the same "reduced" is applicable to all the nouns in the list. So using "lowered" is simply redundant because it has the same meaning as that of "reduced."


Yeah... however (D) is the answer so therefore it must be correct. Reread my post again and you'll see that's not what I was arguing. I also find lowered fatigue to be sort of strange, but that's the OA...
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 28 Mar 2009
Posts: 84
Followers: 3

Kudos [?]: 33 [0], given: 0

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 05 Jun 2009, 19:04
The OA is C
SVP
SVP
avatar
Joined: 21 Jul 2006
Posts: 1551
Followers: 8

Kudos [?]: 232 [0], given: 1

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 06 Jun 2009, 00:41
skim wrote:
Neochronic wrote:
while is needed as we signalling that it raised something..
reduced lowered fatigue illogically suggests increased fatigue..

dont forget the parallel word.. reduced...sickness.. sleeping.. and fatigue..


clear ?



Thanks for your explanation, Neochronic. You wouldn't happen to know, based on your experience in GMAT context, the differences of usage between "among" and "amongst", would you?


there's really no difference between among and amongst. "among" is american english while "amongst" is british english. Since the GMAT exam is written in America, then "among" would be the preferred choice. However, you may sometimes find "amongst" on the GMAT to confuse you. The GMAT doesn't test your spelling skills, so it would "amongst" as a correct answer. So don't be too worried about it. both are perfectly fine with "among" being the most popular choice.
6 KUDOS received
Intern
Intern
User avatar
Joined: 16 Apr 2010
Posts: 47
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 36 [6] , given: 0

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 20 Apr 2010, 04:36
6
This post received
KUDOS
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.
(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised
(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising
(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

Some thoughts:

A series should be written as follows:

I have done X, Y, and Z.
The skeleton of the sentence is as follows:
have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, and fatigue among shift workers

Just look for and fatigue

C and E have the "and fatigue".

=> E means that fatigue has been lowered, but the in previous part of the sentence, there is a verb "reduced". So, the use of lower is redundant.

Answer is C.
_________________

Never, never, never GIVE UP.

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 16 Nov 2010
Posts: 27
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 1 [0], given: 1

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 14 Mar 2011, 10:55
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising




Why is "A" incorrect? Isn't the parallelism correct in that option - "Have reduced" and "have raised"
Whereas in option "c" it says - "have reduced" and "while raising"
Director
Director
avatar
Status: Matriculating
Affiliations: Chicago Booth Class of 2015
Joined: 03 Feb 2011
Posts: 929
Followers: 11

Kudos [?]: 198 [0], given: 123

Reviews Badge
Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 14 Mar 2011, 15:10
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Grouping is wrong. "reduced" is attached to sickness, fatigue but "raised" is attached to production efficiency. You have to use a contrast keyword. "and" is not contrast.

deepaksharma1986 wrote:
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising




Why is "A" incorrect? Isn't the parallelism correct in that option - "Have reduced" and "have raised"
Whereas in option "c" it says - "have reduced" and "while raising"
Expert Post
Retired Moderator
avatar
Status: worked for Kaplan's associates, but now on my own, free and flying
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 2266
Location: India
WE: Education (Education)
Followers: 267

Kudos [?]: 1698 [0], given: 249

Premium Member
Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 14 Mar 2011, 19:32
Expert's post
Just one step forward- The third factor of the reduced series namely 'fatigue' should be separated by a comma to indicate that the series is going to end. Only C and E are eligible contenders. Between them, E is a jumble of unparallel and ungrammatical active and passive voice mix. C survives
_________________

Get the best GMAT Prep Resources with GMAT Club Premium Membership

Expert Post
2 KUDOS received
GMAT Pill Instructor
User avatar
Joined: 14 Apr 2009
Posts: 1611
Location: New York, NY
Followers: 294

Kudos [?]: 692 [2] , given: 6

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 14 Mar 2011, 19:51
2
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
deepaksharma1986 wrote:
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising




Why is "A" incorrect? Isn't the parallelism correct in that option - "Have reduced" and "have raised"
Whereas in option "c" it says - "have reduced" and "while raising"


Step 1) Recognize the sentence structure. Right now the sentence is structured like this:

"studies have reduced X, Y, Z, and have raised Q."

You cannot have this structure! With a "laundry list" like this, you have to end the third item with "and..."
It has to be:
"studies have reduced X, Y, and Z while raising Q."

I was spent a few seconds onsidering another alternate structure like this:
"studies have reduced X, Y, Z, and Q"---but that's not what the sentence is trying to say. The sentence is trying to stay that it RAISED Q---instead of REDUCED Q. So after a few seconds, I went back to what I was thinking of before.

Step 2) So we conclude we want to REDUCE 3 items, and RAISE the last one.

so think:

"studies have reduced item1, item2, and item3 while raising item4."

The word "and" must be there--only choices (C) and (E) have this. Of the two, (C) is much simpler and still accurate. The "was lowered" in (E) shouldn't be there.

Step 3) So we go with (C) and read it again to make sure it makes sense.
"studies have reduced [ (sickness), (sleeping on the job), (and fatigue among shift workers) ] while raising (production efficiency)."
_________________


... and more


Image What's Inside GMAT Pill?

Zeke Lee, GMAT Pill Study Method (Study Less. Score More.)


GMAT Pill Reviews | GMAT PILL Free Practice Test

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 16 Nov 2010
Posts: 27
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 1 [0], given: 1

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 14 Mar 2011, 22:45
So can u have "have reduced x,y and z and have raised q" . I got the "and" part but just wanted to check the "raising" with the "have reduced" part
Manager
Manager
User avatar
Status: Completed GMAT on 22 Nov 2011
Joined: 08 Nov 2010
Posts: 167
Followers: 8

Kudos [?]: 42 [0], given: 12

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 23 May 2011, 00:11
I chose option (D) because I had a tussle between option (C) and option (D). I thought option (C) is using "raising" which is in present continuous tense. I thought that option (D) might do more justice.

In the end, I failed to realize that "and raised" is opposite to "reduced" and it ("and reduced") will not come in the list of element which will follow "reduced".
Retired Moderator
User avatar
Status: 2000 posts! I don't know whether I should feel great or sad about it! LOL
Joined: 04 Oct 2009
Posts: 1726
Location: Peru
Schools: Harvard, Stanford, Wharton, MIT & HKS (Government)
WE 1: Economic research
WE 2: Banking
WE 3: Government: Foreign Trade and SMEs
Followers: 67

Kudos [?]: 328 [0], given: 109

Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 18 Jun 2011, 15:03
+1 C

We need "and" next to fatigue because it is the end of the list for "reduced".
_________________

"Life’s battle doesn’t always go to stronger or faster men; but sooner or later the man who wins is the one who thinks he can."

My Integrated Reasoning Logbook / Diary: my-ir-logbook-diary-133264.html

Get the best GMAT Prep Resources with GMAT Club Premium Membership

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 03 Aug 2011
Posts: 241
Location: United States
Concentration: General Management, Entrepreneurship
GMAT 1: 750 Q49 V44
GPA: 3.38
WE: Engineering (Computer Software)
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 39 [0], given: 12

Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based [#permalink] New post 11 Jan 2012, 14:58
Answer E is wrong because then the first two parallel elements don't have a "and" between them. If the "and" were added, I think grammatically it should work, but it is not concise nor very readable.

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, and sleeping on the job, and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising raised production efficiency in various industries

in this case the "and fatigue among shift workers" is just another independent clause connected by coordinating conjunction and, instead of trying to be a parallel element.
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 03 Aug 2011
Posts: 241
Location: United States
Concentration: General Management, Entrepreneurship
GMAT 1: 750 Q49 V44
GPA: 3.38
WE: Engineering (Computer Software)
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 39 [0], given: 12

Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based [#permalink] New post 11 Jan 2012, 15:09
I have another problem with this question entirely. There appears to be a problem which is not even part of the underlined portion.

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

in the mgmat guide for advanced parallelism, it strictly mentions to never parallel a simple gerund phrase with an action now. Only a complex gerund phrase.

I believe "sleeping on the job" is a simple gerund phrase, since I can say "was sleeping on the job"

But let's say they changed it to a complex gerund phrase, "the sleeping on the job", which sounds weird to me btw. It STILL doesn't work because the other two nouns are action nouns.

So then what if they changed "sleeping on the job" to "sleep on the job", a noun entirely? Well that STILL doesn't work because "sleep" is an action noun whereas sickness/fatigue are concrete nouns (at least i think so, because they don't seem to be verb derived.

and mgmat says that you should not parallel action / concrete nouns.
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
Joined: 12 Mar 2010
Posts: 385
Concentration: Marketing, Entrepreneurship
GMAT 1: 680 Q49 V34
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 31 [0], given: 87

Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based [#permalink] New post 14 Jan 2012, 07:31
What is wrong with the option B here?
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 28 Sep 2011
Posts: 206
GMAT 1: Q V
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 32 [0], given: 5

Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based [#permalink] New post 11 Mar 2012, 19:02
I have picked C for this question:

This question requires parallelism for 3 elements:

The human sleep cycle have reduced:
-sickness
-sleeping on the job
-fatigue among shift workers

While raising is a contrast to the initial 3 elements in parallel - this element should not be parallel to the rest.

A. "Have raised" breaks the parallelism requirement because the words "have reduced" carry over to all the elements.

B. Although parallelism isn't broken, the meaning is incorrect. "raised" does not make sense with "have reduced."

C. This maintains parallelism and clearly shows the contrast that exists between the 3 elements and the increase in production efficiency.

D. "Lowered..." breaks parallelism because it is a verb phrase instead of a noun phrase. "And raised" should not be parallel in meaning to the other 3 elements.

E. "fatigue among shift works was lowered" is a clause and this is not parallel to the other 2 noun phrases. Therefore, this is incorrect.
Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based   [#permalink] 11 Mar 2012, 19:02
    Similar topics Author Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
Recently implemented shift-work equations ricokevin 9 01 Apr 2007, 21:53
) Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on uvs_mba 5 18 Aug 2006, 20:59
Recently implemented shift-work equations gmacvik 9 30 Jan 2006, 13:38
Recently implemented shift-work equations gmacvik 5 21 Oct 2005, 19:31
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies qhoc0010 8 03 Dec 2004, 14:59
Display posts from previous: Sort by

Recently implemented

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  

Go to page    1   2    Next  [ 37 posts ] 



GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Privacy Policy| Terms and Conditions| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group and phpBB SEO

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.