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Recently implemented [#permalink] New post 04 Jun 2009, 19:29
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Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising




This is question #134 of the 12th ed OG. I don't understand why in option (D), the OE states: "lowered before fatigue illogically suggests that fatigue actually increased"

On a separate note, what is the difference between "among" and "amongst" in GMAT context? Is there any particular rule pertaining to these two words?

Thanks for your valued views.
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Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 20 Apr 2010, 04:36
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Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.
(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised
(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising
(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

Some thoughts:

A series should be written as follows:

I have done X, Y, and Z.
The skeleton of the sentence is as follows:
have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, and fatigue among shift workers

Just look for and fatigue

C and E have the "and fatigue".

=> E means that fatigue has been lowered, but the in previous part of the sentence, there is a verb "reduced". So, the use of lower is redundant.

Answer is C.
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Re: Recently implemented [#permalink] New post 14 Feb 2013, 14:03
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C is the right answer.

construction is of the form: have reduced A, B, and C while raising

E is wrong because the word lowered is redundant.

Last edited by StrivingTurtle on 14 Feb 2013, 15:17, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based [#permalink] New post 14 Feb 2013, 15:10
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IanSolo wrote:
pinchharmonic wrote:
I have another problem with this question entirely. There appears to be a problem which is not even part of the underlined portion.

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

in the mgmat guide for advanced parallelism, it strictly mentions to never parallel a simple gerund phrase with an action now. Only a complex gerund phrase.

I believe "sleeping on the job" is a simple gerund phrase, since I can say "was sleeping on the job"

But let's say they changed it to a complex gerund phrase, "the sleeping on the job", which sounds weird to me btw. It STILL doesn't work because the other two nouns are action nouns.

So then what if they changed "sleeping on the job" to "sleep on the job", a noun entirely? Well that STILL doesn't work because "sleep" is an action noun whereas sickness/fatigue are concrete nouns (at least i think so, because they don't seem to be verb derived.

and mgmat says that you should not parallel action / concrete nouns.


I get your same question.. In this sentence the three factors can't be parallel following the MGMAT rule.

Is it allowed use two different verb tense in two parallel clauses? have reduced... and raising ?!?! :?:


Hi there,

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

There is no problem in the parallelism of the entities in the list because all the three entities are noun entities are grammatically parallel.

Yes, “sleeping on the job” is a gerund – a noun that denotes an action. However, “sickness” and “fatigue” are not Concrete Nouns. They are “Abstract Nouns”.

By definition, Concrete Nouns are those nouns that are perceivable through five senses whereas the Abstract Nouns are those nouns that can only be experienced or felt.

There is no problem in a gerund being parallel to other abstract noun phrases. Frankly speaking, we need not even get to these grammatical complications of these entities.

Remember, this is an official question. These entities, at least “sickness” and “sleeping on the job”, are in the non-underlined portion of the sentence. Hence, rather than asking whether usage is correct or not, we must learn such usages from these sentences as they ARE correct.

Also, “raising production…” is not a verb. Note that the verb-ing word by itself cannot be a continuous/progressive verb. It must be preceded by such helping verb as is/am/are/was/were etc. to function as a verb. For example:

1. I am writing a letter.
2. He was playing soccer.
3. They are going to school.

Hence, in the correct answer choice, there is just one verb – “have reduced”.

e-gmat concept Parallelism – Helpful Tips lists out the entities that can be parallel and that cannot be parallel.

Hope this helps. :)
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Last edited by egmat on 06 Aug 2013, 07:55, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 14 Mar 2011, 19:51
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deepaksharma1986 wrote:
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising




Why is "A" incorrect? Isn't the parallelism correct in that option - "Have reduced" and "have raised"
Whereas in option "c" it says - "have reduced" and "while raising"


Step 1) Recognize the sentence structure. Right now the sentence is structured like this:

"studies have reduced X, Y, Z, and have raised Q."

You cannot have this structure! With a "laundry list" like this, you have to end the third item with "and..."
It has to be:
"studies have reduced X, Y, and Z while raising Q."

I was spent a few seconds onsidering another alternate structure like this:
"studies have reduced X, Y, Z, and Q"---but that's not what the sentence is trying to say. The sentence is trying to stay that it RAISED Q---instead of REDUCED Q. So after a few seconds, I went back to what I was thinking of before.

Step 2) So we conclude we want to REDUCE 3 items, and RAISE the last one.

so think:

"studies have reduced item1, item2, and item3 while raising item4."

The word "and" must be there--only choices (C) and (E) have this. Of the two, (C) is much simpler and still accurate. The "was lowered" in (E) shouldn't be there.

Step 3) So we go with (C) and read it again to make sure it makes sense.
"studies have reduced [ (sickness), (sleeping on the job), (and fatigue among shift workers) ] while raising (production efficiency)."
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Re: Recently implemented [#permalink] New post 09 Apr 2014, 06:15
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starry9 wrote:
Hi,

I am unclear about the sentence structure in this question.

Recently implemented “shift-work equations” based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

Meaning:
Shift-work equations have been recently implemented. They are based on studies on the human sleep cycle.
According to the question stem they have reduced 3 things:
-sickness
-sleeping on the job
-fatigue among shift workers

And these equations have raised production efficiency

Error Analysis:
1. SV pair is correct: equations-have
2. Verb is in correct tense.
3. Modifiers are properly placed
4. Parallelism : 3 entities which have been reduced have been joined with a "," & "and" coming together- thus the list has some error.

POE:
We need and to correctly connect the list without a comma before it. C and E take care of this. E has redundancy issue hence is rejected.

Thus correct choice is C.

My question is about the "while raising" part. I understand it cannot be parallel with previous list because it brings in a contrast. But what is the structure of "raising" here...? Is raising a verb-ing modifier which modifies the effect of the previous action of reducing 3 items? It can't be a verb of the subject equations because if we look at it like this that equations have done 2 things: reduced and raised? "raising" does not go with that. Thus I got confused in this step and while marking the answer was debating between A and C. What am I not understanding?

Thanks!


Hi starry9,

Thanks for posting your doubt here. :-)

Choice A is certainly incorrect because the list of three things that the "shift-work equations" have reduced are not connected properly by a marker or proper conjunction.

Now let's talk about Choice C. In this choice, while is NOT presenting contrast. If you analyze all the effects of the "shift-work equations", they are all positive effects. Yes, a few things have reduced, and something has increased. However, all these effects are positive. Hence, we do not have a contrast. Actually, "while" here presents simultaneity of action. Two things happened together by implementing "shift-work equations". For example:

I tripped while walking.
My sister finished cooking while talking to me on the phone.

Now let's talk about the role of "raising". This word here is a verb-ing noun, commonly known as gerund.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based [#permalink] New post 14 Feb 2013, 09:44
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pinchharmonic wrote:
I have another problem with this question entirely. There appears to be a problem which is not even part of the underlined portion.

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

in the mgmat guide for advanced parallelism, it strictly mentions to never parallel a simple gerund phrase with an action now. Only a complex gerund phrase.

I believe "sleeping on the job" is a simple gerund phrase, since I can say "was sleeping on the job"

But let's say they changed it to a complex gerund phrase, "the sleeping on the job", which sounds weird to me btw. It STILL doesn't work because the other two nouns are action nouns.

So then what if they changed "sleeping on the job" to "sleep on the job", a noun entirely? Well that STILL doesn't work because "sleep" is an action noun whereas sickness/fatigue are concrete nouns (at least i think so, because they don't seem to be verb derived.

and mgmat says that you should not parallel action / concrete nouns.


I get your same question.. In this sentence the three factors can't be parallel following the MGMAT rule.

Is it allowed use two different verb tense in two parallel clauses? have reduced... and raising ?!?! :?:
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Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 05 Jun 2009, 07:33
while is needed as we signalling that it raised something..
reduced lowered fatigue illogically suggests increased fatigue..

dont forget the parallel word.. reduced...sickness.. sleeping.. and fatigue..


clear ?
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Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 05 Jun 2009, 08:04
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising




This is question #134 of the 12th ed OG. I don't understand why in option (D), the OE states: "lowered before fatigue illogically suggests that fatigue actually increased"

On a separate note, what is the difference between "among" and "amongst" in GMAT context? Is there any particular rule pertaining to these two words?

Thanks for your valued views.


I thought the answer was A), since have reduced is carried throughout the sentence... so that it becomes have reduced fatigue among shift workers, which I don't find a problem with. D introduces "lowered fatigue" so I wonder if its inappropriate to say reduce fatigue. I dunno :cry:
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Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 05 Jun 2009, 08:18
bipolarbear wrote:
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising




This is question #134 of the 12th ed OG. I don't understand why in option (D), the OE states: "lowered before fatigue illogically suggests that fatigue actually increased"

On a separate note, what is the difference between "among" and "amongst" in GMAT context? Is there any particular rule pertaining to these two words?

Thanks for your valued views.


I thought the answer was A), since have reduced is carried throughout the sentence... so that it becomes have reduced fatigue among shift workers, which I don't find a problem with. D introduces "lowered fatigue" so I wonder if its inappropriate to say reduce fatigue. I dunno :cry:



it's inappropriate to say "lowered fatigue" because we already have "reduced" before sickness. So the same "reduced" is applicable to all the nouns in the list. So using "lowered" is simply redundant because it has the same meaning as that of "reduced."
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Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 05 Jun 2009, 18:50
Neochronic wrote:
while is needed as we signalling that it raised something..
reduced lowered fatigue illogically suggests increased fatigue..

dont forget the parallel word.. reduced...sickness.. sleeping.. and fatigue..


clear ?



Thanks for your explanation, Neochronic. You wouldn't happen to know, based on your experience in GMAT context, the differences of usage between "among" and "amongst", would you?
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Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 05 Jun 2009, 18:54
Quote:

it's inappropriate to say "lowered fatigue" because we already have "reduced" before sickness. So the same "reduced" is applicable to all the nouns in the list. So using "lowered" is simply redundant because it has the same meaning as that of "reduced."


Yeah... however (D) is the answer so therefore it must be correct. Reread my post again and you'll see that's not what I was arguing. I also find lowered fatigue to be sort of strange, but that's the OA...
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Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 05 Jun 2009, 19:04
The OA is C
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Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 06 Jun 2009, 00:41
skim wrote:
Neochronic wrote:
while is needed as we signalling that it raised something..
reduced lowered fatigue illogically suggests increased fatigue..

dont forget the parallel word.. reduced...sickness.. sleeping.. and fatigue..


clear ?



Thanks for your explanation, Neochronic. You wouldn't happen to know, based on your experience in GMAT context, the differences of usage between "among" and "amongst", would you?


there's really no difference between among and amongst. "among" is american english while "amongst" is british english. Since the GMAT exam is written in America, then "among" would be the preferred choice. However, you may sometimes find "amongst" on the GMAT to confuse you. The GMAT doesn't test your spelling skills, so it would "amongst" as a correct answer. So don't be too worried about it. both are perfectly fine with "among" being the most popular choice.
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Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 14 Mar 2011, 10:55
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising




Why is "A" incorrect? Isn't the parallelism correct in that option - "Have reduced" and "have raised"
Whereas in option "c" it says - "have reduced" and "while raising"
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Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 14 Mar 2011, 15:10
Grouping is wrong. "reduced" is attached to sickness, fatigue but "raised" is attached to production efficiency. You have to use a contrast keyword. "and" is not contrast.

deepaksharma1986 wrote:
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising




Why is "A" incorrect? Isn't the parallelism correct in that option - "Have reduced" and "have raised"
Whereas in option "c" it says - "have reduced" and "while raising"
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Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 14 Mar 2011, 19:32
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Just one step forward- The third factor of the reduced series namely 'fatigue' should be separated by a comma to indicate that the series is going to end. Only C and E are eligible contenders. Between them, E is a jumble of unparallel and ungrammatical active and passive voice mix. C survives
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Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 14 Mar 2011, 22:45
So can u have "have reduced x,y and z and have raised q" . I got the "and" part but just wanted to check the "raising" with the "have reduced" part
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Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 23 May 2011, 00:11
I chose option (D) because I had a tussle between option (C) and option (D). I thought option (C) is using "raising" which is in present continuous tense. I thought that option (D) might do more justice.

In the end, I failed to realize that "and raised" is opposite to "reduced" and it ("and reduced") will not come in the list of element which will follow "reduced".
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Re: "Shift-work equations" [#permalink] New post 18 Jun 2011, 15:03
+1 C

We need "and" next to fatigue because it is the end of the list for "reduced".
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Re: "Shift-work equations"   [#permalink] 18 Jun 2011, 15:03
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