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# Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies

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Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies [#permalink]  03 Dec 2004, 15:59
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Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various
industries.
(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised
(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising
(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

Highlight below to OA
The best answer, C, grammatically states that the equations... have reduced x, y, and i. and have raised
efficiency. Choices A and B fail to use and to signal that fatigue among shift workers completes the series
begun by have reduced, and so produce awkward and unclear sentences. Both D and E fail to use and to
introduce the last item in the list, which is sleeping in these constructions. In E, while raising has no logical
referent, producing only the absurd statement that fatigue has raised efficiency.

----------------------------------------------
Which one (B) or (C)? Explain? Thanks.
Director
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OA is (C). Can someone explain?
Intern
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As per rule of parellelism, it should not be Raised(verb).. Because we are using "sickness" "sleeping on the job" "fatigue among shift workers", So next should also be infinitive raising production efficiency in various industries".
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Vipin Gupta

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Re: SC #233 OG - shift-work equations [#permalink]  06 Nov 2008, 19:51
Can anyone explain why D is wrong?

D is wrong because lowered is redundant.

On the flip side, I thought the answer should be B as C seems NOT to be parallel

reduced X Y and Z, raised A

Looks like this is 10th edition. I did not understand the OE.
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Re: SC #233 OG - shift-work equations [#permalink]  06 Nov 2008, 19:52
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various
industries.
(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised
(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising
(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

Good question!!
A, B ,D are wrong for using a "," before 'and'.

shift-work equations 'reduced' three things which should be separated by comma.
sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers.
But as "fatigue among shift workers" is the last in the list (of what is 'reduced' by equations) it should have an ",and" before it.

E is wrong because it violated the parallelism : sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers should be all nouns.

C is the best by POE
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Re: SC #233 OG - shift-work equations [#permalink]  06 Nov 2008, 20:54
I second Alpha's reasoning

the pattern of the sentence is

F have reduced G,H and I, while raising J.

Only C fits that pattern. E is not parallel.
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Re: SC #233 OG - shift-work equations [#permalink]  07 Nov 2008, 07:20
But as "fatigue among shift workers" is the last in the list (of what is 'reduced' by equations) it should have an ",and" before it.

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

It does not have ",and"....

Can you explain this rule in more detail? Thanks.

alpha_plus_gamma wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various
industries.
(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised
(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising
(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised
(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

Good question!!
A, B ,D are wrong for using a "," before 'and'.

shift-work equations 'reduced' three things which should be separated by comma.
sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers.
But as "fatigue among shift workers" is the last in the list (of what is 'reduced' by equations) it should have an ",and" before it.

E is wrong because it violated the parallelism : sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers should be all nouns.

C is the best by POE
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Re: SC #233 OG - shift-work equations [#permalink]  07 Nov 2008, 08:20
It does not have ",and"....

Can you explain this rule in more detail? Thanks.

when you have to list up similar items you should separate them by a comma.
and before the last item in the list you should put ",and" to mark the end of the list.
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Re: SC #233 OG - shift-work equations [#permalink]  07 Nov 2008, 08:38
But there is no ",and" in answer choice C.

alpha_plus_gamma wrote:
It does not have ",and"....

Can you explain this rule in more detail? Thanks.

when you have to list up similar items you should separate them by a comma.
and before the last item in the list you should put ",and" to mark the end of the list.
Re: SC #233 OG - shift-work equations   [#permalink] 07 Nov 2008, 08:38
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