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# Research during the past several decades on the nature of

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Research during the past several decades on the nature of [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2004, 15:35
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Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity.

(A) that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity
(B) of producing and understanding it have revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(C) by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(D) by which it is produced and understood have revealed great complexity rather than underlying simplicity
(E) by which one produces and understands it have revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity
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Re: SSC885- #1 [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2005, 15:52
I am bet A and C. prefer C because it is in past tense. but still doubt over the use of by which in C.

C. Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
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Re: SSC885- #1 [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2005, 16:59
MA wrote:
has A proper tense? pls clearify guys.
swath20 wrote:
Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity.
(A) that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity

MA, The 'it' in 'C' is referring to 'processes' so the sentence is reading like 'processes by which processes is produced and understood...'
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17 Apr 2005, 21:54
(A) that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity

(B) of producing and understanding it have revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
- present participal 'producing' and 'understanding' should not be used (sentence not emphasizing ongoin nature of action)

(C) by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
- 'not underlying simpicity' is awkward

(D) by which it is produced and understood have revealed great complexity rather than underlying simplicity
- 'rather than' suggests the researches expected simplicity, something not suggested in the original sentence.

(E) by which one produces and understands it have revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity
- 'one' should not be used

A it is, by POE
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18 Apr 2005, 04:13
OA is A
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18 Apr 2005, 04:39
swath20 wrote:
Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity.
(A) that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity
(B) of producing and understanding it have revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(C) by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(D) by which it is produced and understood have revealed great complexity rather than underlying simplicity
(E) by which one produces and understands it have revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity

Subject-verb agreement principle can eliminate B,D,E.

what's wrong with C?
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18 Apr 2005, 07:27
"A" by POE....but does "it" in "A" has clear referrant ? Can't "it" refer to either processes or nature of language ? Can anyone plz explain ...thx
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08 Dec 2005, 14:47
22. Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity.

a. that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity
b. of producing and understanding it have revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
c. by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
d. by which it is produced and understood have revealed great complexity rather than underlying simplicity
e. by which one produces and understands it have revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity

A or C? And why?

Thanks!
Arash
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08 Dec 2005, 15:21
C.

If we replace "instead of" with "rather than", A will be preferable.

B/D/E: have defies S(research)+V agreement
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08 Dec 2005, 15:35
Paki, why A? Shouldn't the rite usage in A be:

"that produce it and make it understandable..."

Without the "it" we don't wnow what these processes are producing...

Thanks!
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08 Dec 2005, 16:53
as per my understanding, instead of is generally followed by gerund (+ing form).
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08 Dec 2005, 17:39
My answer was C because in A, they used "make it" and "instead of", which is unidomatic, while C is clear and concise by using rather than.
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08 Dec 2005, 20:44
(A) for two reasons.

1. Good old active voice.
2. Instead of shows a complete contradiction as a result of the research.
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09 Dec 2005, 06:22
Thanks guys!

the OA is A
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09 Dec 2005, 09:32
While crawling web about this SC i found following information on usage of "rather than". I would recommend reading it:

The phrase rather than consists of an adverb and a conjunction and often means "and not," as in I decided to skip lunch rather than eat in the cafeteria again. It is grammatically similar to sooner than in that it is used with a "bare" infinitiveâ€”an infinitive minus to: I would stay here and eat flies sooner than go with them.

Rather than can also be used with nouns as a compound preposition meaning "instead of": I bought a mountain bike rather than a ten-speed. But some people object to this use, insisting that than should be used only as a conjunction. They therefore object to constructions in which rather than is followed by a gerund, as in Rather than buying a new car, I kept my old one.

In some cases, however, rather than can only be followed by a gerund and not by a bare infinitive. If the main verb of the sentence has a form that does not allow parallel treatment of the verb following rather than, you cannot use a bare infinitive, and you must use a gerund. This is often the case when the main verb is in a past tense or has a participle. Thus, you must say The results of the study, rather than ending (not end or ended) the controversy, only added to it. If the main verb was in the present tense (add), you could use the bare infinitive end.

Curiously, when the rather than construction follows the main verb, it can use other verb forms besides the bare infinitive. Thus you can say The results of the study added to the controversy rather than ended it.

The overriding concern in all of this should be to avoid faulty parallels, as in sentences like Rather than buy a new car, I have kept my old one and Rather than take a cab, she is going on foot.

Clearly, it is grammatically defensible to follow rather than with a gerund, but if you prefer to avoid the controversy, use instead of with gerunds.

usage of "instead of" to compare two parallel nouns is correct here in A.(see bold part)
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09 Dec 2005, 09:48
I also got A.

C is little complex. "process by which" is not better than "process that"
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21 Aug 2006, 19:26
Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity.

(A) that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity
(B) of producing and understanding it have revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(C) by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(D) by which it is produced and understood have revealed great complexity rather than underlying simplicity
(E) by which one produces and understands it have revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity

Edited for clarity: Please underline SCs!
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21 Aug 2006, 19:32
A stands.
Eliminate B,D and E on SVA. "have" is wrong here.
C----> "not underlying simplicity" is awkward construction.
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21 Aug 2006, 20:54
Going with A here....

Research.... has revealed
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22 Aug 2006, 08:09
Research during the past several decades on the nature of language and the processes that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity.

(A) that produce and make it understandable has revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity
(B) of producing and understanding it have revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(C) by which it is produced and understood has revealed not underlying simplicity but great complexity
(D) by which it is produced and understood have revealed great complexity rather than underlying simplicity
(E) by which one produces and understands it have revealed great complexity instead of underlying simplicity

I think "A" is the answer. Even though "C" seems a little misleading, "Passive voice" makes it weaker compared to "A."
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22 Aug 2006, 08:47
I think it should C. I'm OK with the passve voice and it doesn't sound awkward to me (I'm not a native English speaker but i believe it's OK in a formal text).

My problem with A is that "produce" sounds awakward without "it" because the second phrase with one "it" supposedly for the 2 of them is not a simple verb but a "link + adjective" phrase.

it would be OK if it were "produce and decipher it", two simple verbs: or "produce it and make it understandable" - two "it"s

what's the OA?
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22 Aug 2006, 08:47

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# Research during the past several decades on the nature of

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