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Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind

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Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind [#permalink] New post 16 Feb 2014, 09:54
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Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind from birth, and who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and that they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person.

A) who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and that they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person.
B) who thus never saw anyone gesturing, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, and that they will gesture
C) who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people, do, as well as gesturing
D) thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when speaking just as frequent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, as well as gesturing
E) thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless to make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and to gesture

This one gave me a headache. :|
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind [#permalink] New post 17 Feb 2014, 07:08
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Abdul29 wrote:
Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind from birth, and who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and that they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person.

A) who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and that they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person.
B) who thus never saw anyone gesturing, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, and that they will gesture
C) who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people, do, as well as gesturing
D) thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when speaking just as frequent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, as well as gesturing
E) thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless to make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and to gesture

This one gave me a headache. :|


This is why I think all the other options are wrong:
In B, "just as frequent" is wrong, and so is "sighted people did"
In C, "nevertheless made" hand motions is wrong because they haven't stopped making these hand motions, so we need the present tense - make
In D, "nevertheless made" is wrong again, and so is "just as frequent" because it should be "just as frequently"
In E, "nevertheless to make hand motions" is all kinds of wrong.
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Re: Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind [#permalink] New post 18 Feb 2014, 08:32
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This is essentially a question of maintaining //ism

A) who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and that they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person.----Correct choice maintaining//ism and tense form

B) who thus never saw anyone gesturing, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, and that they will gesture --- use of past tense ‘saw’ breaks //ism

C) who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people, do, as well as gesturing -------Use of past tense ‘made’ breaks //ism

D) thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when speaking just as frequent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, as well as gesturing –never having seen breaks //ism

E) thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless to make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and to gesture--- same as D Plus a faulty construction.
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Re: Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2014, 23:04
daagh wrote:
This is essentially a question of maintaining //ism

A) who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and that they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person.----Correct choice maintaining//ism and tense form

B) who thus never saw anyone gesturing, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, and that they will gesture --- use of past tense ‘saw’ breaks //ism

C) who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people, do, as well as gesturing -------Use of past tense ‘made’ breaks //ism

D) thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when speaking just as frequent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, as well as gesturing –never having seen breaks //ism

E) thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless to make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and to gesture--- same as D Plus a faulty construction.



In Option A, "and that they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person". what does that refer too??
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Re: Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2014, 00:09
nityamskhurana wrote:
daagh wrote:
This is essentially a question of maintaining //ism

A) who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and that they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person.----Correct choice maintaining//ism and tense form

B) who thus never saw anyone gesturing, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, and that they will gesture --- use of past tense ‘saw’ breaks //ism

C) who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people, do, as well as gesturing -------Use of past tense ‘made’ breaks //ism

D) thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when speaking just as frequent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, as well as gesturing –never having seen breaks //ism

E) thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless to make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and to gesture--- same as D Plus a faulty construction.



In Option A, "and that they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person". what does that refer too??


That refers to The research have found that .....this that is the second that for the second part of that research ;)
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Re: Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind [#permalink] New post 18 Apr 2014, 01:19
samichange wrote:
nityamskhurana wrote:
daagh wrote:
This is essentially a question of maintaining //ism

A) who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and that they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person.----Correct choice maintaining//ism and tense form

B) who thus never saw anyone gesturing, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, and that they will gesture --- use of past tense ‘saw’ breaks //ism

C) who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people, do, as well as gesturing -------Use of past tense ‘made’ breaks //ism

D) thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when speaking just as frequent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, as well as gesturing –never having seen breaks //ism

E) thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless to make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and to gesture--- same as D Plus a faulty construction.



In Option A, "and that they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person". what does that refer too??


That refers to The research have found that .....this that is the second that for the second part of that research ;)



Thanks!!! not sure how i missed that....that :) :) :)
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Re: Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind [#permalink] New post 30 Apr 2014, 05:10
"who" and "that" after "and" are used to maintain parallelism.
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Re: Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind [#permalink] New post 18 May 2014, 08:46
Abdul29 wrote:
Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind from birth, and who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and that they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person.

A) who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and that they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person.
B) who thus never saw anyone gesturing, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, and that they will gesture
C) who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people, do, as well as gesturing
D) thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when speaking just as frequent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, as well as gesturing
E) thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless to make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and to gesture

This one gave me a headache. :|


I am not able to understand the structure of this question.
As fas as I know Comma + and has two usage : when there is an independent clause or when there are 2 or more item in the list.
so in the sentence ,and who thus have never been .. is neither and independent clause nor an item in the list.
So what is the exact usage over here and please explain the entire grammatical strucutre in individual clauses and list.
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Re: Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind [#permalink] New post 18 May 2014, 20:35
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abid1986 wrote:
Abdul29 wrote:
Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind from birth, and who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and that they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person.

A) who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and that they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person.
B) who thus never saw anyone gesturing, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, and that they will gesture
C) who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people, do, as well as gesturing
D) thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when speaking just as frequent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, as well as gesturing
E) thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless to make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and to gesture

This one gave me a headache. :|


I am not able to understand the structure of this question.
As fas as I know Comma + and has two usage : when there is an independent clause or when there are 2 or more item in the list.
so in the sentence ,and who thus have never been .. is neither and independent clause nor an item in the list.
So what is the exact usage over here and please explain the entire grammatical strucutre in individual clauses and list.




Hi abid1986,

You have correctly mentioned the two usage of ‘comma + and’. I think the problem you faced here is in breaking the sentence into clauses and that’s the reason you could not identify the function of ‘comma + and’ in this sentence.

Following is the grammatical structure of the sentence. You can find the subjects in the green and verbs in the blue.


Researchers have found (C-1)
o that
individuals (C-2)
o who have been blind from birth, (C-3)
o and who thus have never seen anyone gesture, (C-4)
• nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as (C-2 continued...)
sighted people do, (C-5)
o and that they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person. (C-6)



PARALLEL LIST- I

This list is of a certain things that the researchers have found:
1. Individuals make hand motions when speaking
2. And they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person.

This list of items is connected using ‘comma + and’.


PARALLEL LIST- II

This list is of some specific individuals about whom the researchers have found the above things:
1. Who have been blind from birth.
2. Who have never seen anyone gesture.

I think this one answers your first question. These are the two items in the list that are connected using ‘comma + and’.


COMPARISON

o Individuals make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do.

The two clauses ‘individuals make hand motions’ and ‘sighted people do’ are compared using ‘as…..as’.


Hope this helps! :)
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Re: Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind [#permalink] New post 18 May 2014, 23:12
abid1986 wrote:
As fas as I know Comma + and has two usage : when there is an independent clause or when there are 2 or more item in the list.

Actually I thought that "more than 2 items" are required in a list, for he comma + and. Is this not true?

Is there an article that you can direct me towards.
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Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind [#permalink] New post 22 May 2014, 05:55
VerbalHow wrote:
abid1986 wrote:
As fas as I know Comma + and has two usage : when there is an independent clause or when there are 2 or more item in the list.

Actually I thought that "more than 2 items" are required in a list, for he comma + and. Is this not true?

Is there an article that you can direct me towards.





Hi VerbalHow,

I haven’t encountered any article on the usage of ‘and’, but I think we can learn more from the official sentences than from articles, which by the way are not official. :P


We can look for two official examples, in which there are only two elements in a list and these elements are connected using a ‘comma + and’.




EXAMPLE I


• Researchers have found

o that individuals who have been blind from birth, and who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do,
o and that they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person.



Here, the two items of the list connected with a ‘comma + and’ are the two dependent clauses:

1. that individuals…..
2. that they will gesture…..



EXAMPLE II

• Researchers have found
• that individuals

o who have been blind from birth,
o and who thus have never seen anyone gesture,

• nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and that they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person.





Here, the two items of the list connected with a ‘comma + and’ are again two dependent clauses:

1. who have been blind from birth
2. who thus have never seen anyone gesture


Considering above two examples, we can say that ‘comma + and’ can be used to connect a list which has two or more items.


Hope this helps! :)
Manyu

Last edited by manyu2409 on 16 Jul 2014, 23:09, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind [#permalink] New post 17 Jun 2014, 20:16
What does 'they' refer to in the end? It could refer to researchers and individuals both logically and grammatically. Should have a pronoun reference error?
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Re: Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind [#permalink] New post 18 Jun 2014, 02:55
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gauravkaushik8591 wrote:
What does 'they' refer to in the end? It could refer to researchers and individuals both logically and grammatically. Should have a pronoun reference error?



Hi gauravkaushik8591,

When a sentence has two parallel clauses and the subject of the second clause is a pronoun then this pronoun refers to the subject of the first clause.
Let us take a look at the sentence structure for this question:

• Researchers have found
o that individuals who have been blind from birth, and who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do,
o and that they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person.

Now, in the above sentence there are two parallel clauses starting with ‘that’, and the subject of the second clause is a pronoun. So, grammatically it refers to the subject of the first parallel clause i.e. individuals.

Also, logically ‘researchers’ cannot be the antecedent of the pronoun ‘they’. Let’s try to understand the meaning of the last clause of the sentence:
• They will gesture even when conversing with another blind person.

The phrase ‘another blind person’ indicates that the people who are gesturing are also blind. Now, who is blind- the researchers or the individuals?
As mentioned in the sentence, the individuals are blind, not the researchers. So, the logical antecedent to the pronoun ‘they’ is ‘individuals’.

Hope this helps! :)
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Re: Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind [#permalink] New post 18 Jun 2014, 04:34
manyu2409 wrote:
Considering above two examples, we can say that ‘comma + and’ can be used to connect a list which has two or more items.

What I mean by "list" was elements "other than clauses".

He is a person who likes to play football, and who likes to watch television: comma before "and", because "and" joins two clauses.

He is a person who likes to play football and watch television: no comma before "and", because "and" joins two elements.

He is a person who likes to play football, watch television, and enjoy movies: comma before "and", because "and" joins more than two elements.

Can you let me know if you have seen any official example that violates this?
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Re: Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind [#permalink] New post 18 Jun 2014, 06:57
Researches have found
-- that individuals
who have been blind from birth
and
who thus have never seen anyone gesture
nevertheless make hand motions when speaking
just as frequently and in virtually the same way
as sighted people do
--and that they (individuals) will gesture even when conversing with another blind person


A) who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and that they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person. - Correct
B) who thus never saw anyone gesturing, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, and that they will gesture – Incorrect. Tense issue.
C) who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people, do, as well as gesturingIncorrect. Tense error.Parallelism error.
D) thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when speaking just as frequent and in virtually the same way as sighted people did, as well as gesturingIncorrect. Tense error .Parallelism error.
E) thus never having seen anyone gesture, nevertheless to make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do, and to gestureIncorrect. Verb missing. Parallelism error.
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Sentence correction [#permalink] New post 24 Jun 2014, 20:28
Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind from birth, and who thus have never seen anyone
gesture, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same wayas
sighted people do, and that they will gesture
even when conversing with another blind person.
A. who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently
and in virtually the same way as sighted people do,and that they will gesture
B. who thus never saw anyone gesturing, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequent andin
virtually the same way as sighted people did, and that they will gesture
C. who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when speaking just as frequently
and in virtually the same way as sighted people do,as well as gesturing
D. thus never having seen anyone gesture, neverthelessmade hand motions when speaking just as frequent and in
virtually the same way as sighted people did, as well as gesturing
E. thus never having seen anyone gesture, neverthelessto make hand motions when speaking just as frequently
and in virtually the same way as sighted people do,and to gesture

The answer is A, but i cant understand the parallelism in the structure, please help.
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Re: Sentence correction [#permalink] New post 24 Jun 2014, 20:43
Expert's post
bikramnitj wrote:
Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind from birth, and who thus have never seen anyone
gesture, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same wayas
sighted people do, and that they will gesture
even when conversing with another blind person.
A. who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently
and in virtually the same way as sighted people do,and that they will gesture
B. who thus never saw anyone gesturing, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequent andin
virtually the same way as sighted people did, and that they will gesture
C. who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless made hand motions when speaking just as frequently
and in virtually the same way as sighted people do,as well as gesturing
D. thus never having seen anyone gesture, neverthelessmade hand motions when speaking just as frequent and in
virtually the same way as sighted people did, as well as gesturing
E. thus never having seen anyone gesture, neverthelessto make hand motions when speaking just as frequently
and in virtually the same way as sighted people do,and to gesture

The answer is A, but i cant understand the parallelism in the structure, please help.



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Re: Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind [#permalink] New post 24 Jun 2014, 21:15
bikramnitj wrote:
The answer is A, but i cant understand the parallelism in the structure, please help.

Two levels of parallelism can be immediately spotted:

Researchers have found

1) that individuals

1a) who have been blind from birth, and
1b) who thus have never seen anyone gesture, nevertheless make hand motions when speaking just as frequently and in virtually the same way as sighted people do,

and

2) that they will gesture even when conversing with another blind person

So, on a larger level, the parallelism is: Researchers have found that X...and that...Y (because these are the two broad findings of the researchers)

Within X, we have another level of parallelism: individuals who X1 and who X2 (because both of these are the characteristics of those individuals)

Hope it is clear now.
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Re: Researchers have found that individuals who have been blind   [#permalink] 24 Jun 2014, 21:15
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