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Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who

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Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who [#permalink] New post 10 Apr 2005, 02:56
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Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to have relatively low metabolic rates, lose weight primarily through dieting, their metabolism generally remain unchanged. They will thus burn significantly fewer calories at the new weight than do people whose weight is normally at that level. Such newly thin persons will, therefore, ultimately regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic rate.

The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?

A: Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level.
B: The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of people who have been very overweight.
C: The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual.
D: Reseachers have not yet determined whether the metabolic rates of formerly very overweight individuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents.
E: Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally have as much difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: CR : Researchers have found that when very overweight people [#permalink] New post 08 Jul 2008, 09:42
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I get A.

Premise: Overweight people who lose weight from dieting keep the same metabolism
Premise: They will burn less calories at the new lower weight than people who are normally at that weight.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Conclusion: These people will regain weight until their body size matches their unchanged metabolism.

In order to reach that conclusion there is one premise (assumption) that we need. If the people are who lose weight by dieting will eventually regain weight than we HAVE to assume that they will stop dieting. Because if they continue to consume the same calories that they did to lose weight then they will not gain any of it back.
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Re: Researchers have found that when very overweight people [#permalink] New post 07 Dec 2010, 03:56
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ajit257 wrote:
Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to have relatively low metabolic rates, lose weight primarily through dieting, their metabolisms generally remain unchanged. They will thus burn significantly fewer calories at the new weight than do people whose weight is normally at that level. Such newly thin persons will, therefore, ultimately regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic rate.

The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?


Conclusion - Newly thin people regain weight.

Possible assumptions - Newly thin people start eating more. or
The metabolism of newly thin people further slows down thereby not burning calories,leading to increased weight.




(A) Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level. - Hold

(B) The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of people who have been very overweight. - Para is Talking about overweight people. Out of scope.

(C) The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual. - Out of scope.

(D) Researchers have not yet determined whether the metabolic rates of formerly very overweight individuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents. - Out of scope.

(E) Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally have as much difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it. - Hold

Can some explain how to tackle assumption efficiently...thanks


Now between A and E use negation and see its effect of conclusion.Negation should undermine the conclusion.

E Not Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally do not have as much difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it. - Dosen't effect the conclusion at all.

A No very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tended to continue to consume substantially more calories than do people whose weight is at that level." - If this is true then how Newly thin people regained weight ? Hence this undermines the conclusion.

Hence A prevails.
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Re: CR - Overweight [#permalink] New post 10 Apr 2005, 06:59
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Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to have relatively low metabolic rates, lose weight primarily through dieting, their metabolism generally remain unchanged. They will thus burn significantly fewer calories at the new weight than do people whose weight is normally at that level. Such newly thin persons will, therefore, ultimately regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic rate.

The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?

A: Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level.

YES. We know from the question that the metabolism of these very overweight people remains unchanged despite their weight loss. As such, in order to maintain their lower weight, they will have to consume fewer calories than people whose normal weight is at that level (and whose metabolisms are faster). If these newly thinner very overweight people maintain the same calorie count as their normal weight counterparts, they will gain weight. The fact that few of them do means that they will regain weight until their body size matches their metabolic rate.

B: The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of people who have been very overweight.

Irrelevant.

C: The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual.

This contradicts the passage. The passage tells us that very overweight people tend to have slower metabolic rates. Slower metabolic rates means that they will burn fewer calories per day. This rate is unrelated to the amount of calories consumed and relies instead on the weight of the individual (of course, this is a bit tricky, since very overweight people's metabolic rates don't change a lot when they lose weight through dieting... sigh).

D: Reseachers have not yet determined whether the metabolic rates of formerly very overweight individuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents.

Irrelevant.

E: Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally have as much difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it.

Irrelevant.

I'd go with A because...

We know from the question that when very overweight people lose weight by dieting alone, their metabolism remains the same. That means that they cannot
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Re: Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who [#permalink] New post 06 Nov 2012, 09:25
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Here is a reason why (C) does not work.

(C) The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual.

Ask ourselves...does knowing the amount of calories burned in a day affect our argument that these dieters will actually REGAIN weight? We already know that dieters' calorie burn is LOWER than that of normal people for a given weight. If weight gain is determined by calorie INTAKE minus calorie burned, then the missing part to this equation is actually calorie INTAKE (or food eaten)...which is what (A) already addressed. Does (C) address calorie INTAKE?

Is (C) something the argument DEPENDS on? This is the "A vs Not A" Framework.

Does the following work:
A case)Amount of calories burned is DETERMINED by amount consumed (rather than individual's weight) => dieters will REGAIN weight
"Not A" case) Amount of calories burned is NOT DETERMINED by amount consumed (instead, determined by individual's weight) => dieters will NOT REGAIN weight

Well, in the opposite case which is where calories burned is determined by individual's weight...then the calorie burns will be equal between avg person and the dieter because now the dieter has lost weight and become the same weight as the average person. So the amount of calories burned will equal. Thus, dieteres will NOT REGAIN weight. However, this conflicts with information in the passage...that since dieters' natural metabolism is lower, the calorie burn is LOWER than the average person. Thus conflicting information. Dieters' calorie burn cannot be LOWER than the average person AND the SAME.

Then in the "A" case, calorie burn is determined by amount consumed. Well, the dieters consume less than the average person. What does that mean for calorie burn? We know consumption is LINKED to calorie burn, but we don't know the direction. Is it dieters consume less so then calorie burn is HIGHER? or is it that the calorie burn is LOWER?

So you can see, (C) has a number of problems when the "A vs Not A" framework is applied.
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Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who [#permalink] New post 19 Dec 2012, 22:25
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Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to have relatively low metabolic rates, lose weight primarily through dieting, their metabolisms generally remain unchanged. They will thus burn significantly fewer calories at the new weight than do people whose weight is normally at that level. Such newly thin persons will, therefore, ultimately regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic rate.

The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level.

(B) The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of people who have been very overweight.

(C) The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual.

(D) Researchers have not yet determined whether the metabolic rates of formerly very overweight individuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents.

(E) Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally have as much difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it.

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Re: Researchers have found that when very overweight people [#permalink] New post 15 Jan 2013, 19:55
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chiccufrazer1 wrote:
would you please explain a little bit more on how negation works and how useful it is when tackling questions like these..thanks

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It's something we call the ANT (Assumption Negation Technique)
To understand it, you first need to understand what an assumption is. An assumption is a necessary missing premise. Premises support the conclusion. An assumption is also a premise but it is not given in the argument. Additionally, it is a necessary premise for the conclusion to hold true.

Say, take a simple example:

You are studying very hard. You are putting in 10 hrs a day. You work your way through many questions every day. You will pass the test.

Premises:
You are studying very hard.
You are putting in 10 hrs a day.
You work your way through many questions every day.

Conclusion:
You will pass the test.

Assumption:
Is there a premise you NEED to make the conclusion hold?
"Hard work is sufficient to pass the test"

This is an assumption the author is making. He hasn't said this as such in his argument but he is assuming it. He is assuming that hard work is enough to pass.

The argument would be more complete if it looked like this:
You are studying very hard. You are putting in 10 hrs a day. You work your way through many questions every day. Hard work is sufficient to pass the test. Hence, you will pass the test.

What if I negate this assumption and make it: "Hard work is not sufficient to pass the test"
Can my conclusion still hold?
So you are studying very hard but hard work alone may not be enough. Can I say that you will pass the test? No. This is the point of negating the assumption. If the assumption is negated, the conclusion cannot hold. It is necessary that the assumption must hold if the conclusion has to hold.

If you negate an option and there is still a possibility that the conclusion can hold, it means the option is not an assumption.
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Re: Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who [#permalink] New post 03 Mar 2014, 01:57
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"Relatively few" is what is important to note in choice A. Relatively few will continue eating less means a lot will eat more again. Hence they will regain their weight. A is the choice. I picked C without reading A properly.
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 [#permalink] New post 10 Apr 2005, 04:58
I will go with 'C'

Conclusion:Regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic rate.

A: Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level.
If this is true, they will continue to lose weight.

B: The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of people who have been very overweight.
Nothing to do with the conclusion.

C: The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual.
This is it. Only then will the person regain his weight.

D: Reseachers have not yet determined whether the metabolic rates of formerly very overweight individuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents.
Nothing to do with the conclusion.

E: Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally have as much difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it.
Nothing to do with the conclusion.
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 [#permalink] New post 11 Apr 2005, 22:51
Thanks everyone!! The OA is (A).
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Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who [#permalink] New post 14 Sep 2005, 10:11
Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to have relatively low metabolic rates, lose weight primarily thourgh dieting, their metabolisms, generally remain unchanged. The will thus burn significantly fewer calories at the new weight than do people whose weight is normally at that level. Such newly thin person will, therefore, ultimately regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic rate.

The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?

a) Relatively few overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume substatially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level.

b) The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of people who have been very overweight.

c) The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is consumed that day than by the current weight individuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents.

d) Researchers have not yet determined whether the metabolic rates of formerly very overweight individuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents.

e) Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally have as much difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it.

Pls share us your answer and explanation. Thanks.
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 [#permalink] New post 14 Sep 2005, 11:00
IMO A, the argument assumes overweight people after losing weight by consuming less food to cater to their low maetabolic rate, will start consuming more food after they achieve their goal....that is why their weight will increase....
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 [#permalink] New post 14 Sep 2005, 11:37
good one... I felt for it and choose B, now I know that I need to be little more careful.
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 [#permalink] New post 14 Sep 2005, 11:37
Sorry wrong button....
I will pick A.
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Re: CR-Overweight [#permalink] New post 14 Sep 2005, 12:10
Go with A

Conclusion - new thin ppl will gain it back...

Assumption..they keep it eating a lot.

jinino wrote:
Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to have relatively low metabolic rates, lose weight primarily thourgh dieting, their metabolisms, generally remain unchanged. The will thus burn significantly fewer calories at the new weight than do people whose weight is normally at that level. Such newly thin person will, therefore, ultimately regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic rate.

The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?

a) Relatively few overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume substatially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level.

b) The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of people who have been very overweight.

c) The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is consumed that day than by the current weight individuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents.

d) Researchers have not yet determined whether the metabolic rates of formerly very overweight individuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents.

e) Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally have as much difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it.

Pls share us your answer and explanation. Thanks.
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 [#permalink] New post 15 Sep 2005, 10:32
The OA is A.

Here is the official explanation:

If, compared with people who have not been overweight, newly thin people burned fewer calories but also generally consumed fewer calories, one could not reliably conclude that the newly think people would regain weight. Therefore, the conclusion assumes that the newly thin do not generally consume fewer calories, making choice A the best answer.

The conclusion does not rely on differences in the variability of the metabolism (choice B), just on differences in the rate of metabolism, nor does it rely on the relative significance of different factors in determining how many calories a pwerson burns in a day (choice C). Neither does the conclusion assume anything about whether accelerators for the metabolism have been discovered (choice D), or about why some people have difficulty gaining weight (choice E).
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Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who [#permalink] New post 30 Jan 2006, 19:35
Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to have relatively
low metabolic rates, lose weight primarily through dieting, their metabolisms generally
remain unchanged. They will thus burn significantly fewer calories at the new weight than
do people whose weight is normally at that level. Such newly thin persons will, therefore,
ultimately regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic rate.
The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?

A. Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend tocontinue to consume substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is atthat level.

B. The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than themetabolisms of people who have been very overweight.

C. The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by theamount that is consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual.

D. Researchers have not yet determined whether the metabolic rates of formerly very overweightindividuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents.

E. Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weightnormally have as much difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it.

Pls explain your reasoning
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 [#permalink] New post 30 Jan 2006, 21:59
My pick is (C).

(B), (D) and (E) are out of scope.

The premise of the srgument says that "metabolism of overweight people who reduce through dieting remains unchanged".

(A) Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend tocontinue to consume substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is atthat level. -- [color=orange]This talks about few people continuing to consume fewer calories after reducing weight. This didnt quite appeal to me.[/color]
(C) The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by theamount that is consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual. -- This sounds correct assumtion. Because the argument on the whole is dealing with people dieting(eating less food) and there rate of burning calories.
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Re: CR-overweight people [#permalink] New post 30 Jan 2006, 22:19
A

Negate A, the conclusion fails: If newly thin people consumed less calories, it will be hard to argue that they will regain their weight.

I feel C weakens the conclusion.....
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 [#permalink] New post 31 Jan 2006, 16:15
A strengthens.
  [#permalink] 31 Jan 2006, 16:15
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