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San Franciscans of the 1890s mocked the claim that declared

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San Franciscans of the 1890s mocked the claim that declared [#permalink] New post 12 May 2012, 07:09
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Question Stats:

33% (01:37) correct 67% (00:51) wrong based on 105 sessions
San Franciscans of the 1890s mocked the claim that declared Los Angeles a world city, yet within twenty years a powerful municipality had made this boast a reality.

A) yet within twenty years a powerful municipality had made this boast a reality
B) yet within twenty years a powerful municipality made this boast a reality
C) yet a powerful municipality within twenty years will make this boast a reality
D) yet this boast had become a reality within twenty years because of a powerful will municipally
E) yet within twenty years a municipality will had made this boast a powerful reality


Why must we use had here? Can't se what action it is preceding?

Thanks!
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: San Franciscans of the 1890s mocked the claim that declared [#permalink] New post 12 May 2012, 20:10
alexpavlos wrote:
San Franciscans of the 1890s mocked the claim that declared Los Angeles a world city, yet within twenty years a powerful municipality had made this boast a reality.

A) yet within twenty years a powerful municipality had made this boast a reality
B) yet within twenty years a powerful municipality made this boast a reality
C) yet a powerful municipality within twenty years will make this boast a reality
D) yet this boast had become a reality within twenty years because of a powerful will municipally
E) yet within twenty years a municipality will had made this boast a powerful reality


Why must we use had here? Can't se what action it is preceding?

Thanks!


This is not the CORRECT QUESTION. See http://www.beatthegmat.com/la-t103362-15.html to find out the correct question.

Furthermore, the correct question has 2 equally good answers - A & B. A is using Past Perfect and B is using Simple past.

B seem more appropriate to me as we normally use Simple past when no other past tense event is described. BUT here past perfect is also legitimate as a different meaning is conveyed. Consider - "with 10 yr of my retirement, i had finished all my savings" This is not INCORRECT, it implies that i expected them to last for more than 10 yrs OR did not expect them to finish in 10yrs but i finished all of them. So in this case, A option would mean that although san franciscans did not expect, municipal had made this boast a reality.

Hope it helps
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Re: San Franciscans of the 1890s mocked the claim that declared [#permalink] New post 12 May 2012, 21:36
I had similar issues earlier and the only way to resolve it is to know this one rule:

PAST/PRESENT PERFECT + SIMPLE PAST:

If two actions in a sentence occurred at different times in the past, use SIMPLE PAST for the earlier event and PERFECT PAST or PRESENT for the later event.

Another good example of this rule:

The results of the company's cost cutting measures show in it's profits, which HAVE increased in the past three months after it FELL last year.
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Re: San Franciscans of the 1890s mocked the claim that declared [#permalink] New post 13 May 2012, 03:15
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Macjas wrote

Quote:
Another good example of this rule:

The results of the company's cost cutting measures show in its profits, which HAVE increased in the past three months after it, FELL last year.


I am afraid that this example is not expressing the right position, as there seems to be some significant editing from the correct choice. Therefore I am curious to see where the above given example appears. In addition, the discussed example has a serious pronoun error. We cannot ascribe a singular noun for it. All nouns available namely results, measures, and profits are plural.

Quote:
The actual topic.

The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

A. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell

B. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen

C. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling over the last two years

D. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling

E. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen


C is the right Answer

As per the above example, the correct choice C uses a present participle falling rather than the past tense verb fell. In fact the choice A is rejected for using the past tense verb fell.
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Re: San Franciscans of the 1890s mocked the claim that declared [#permalink] New post 13 May 2012, 03:55
Hi daagh

I actually made that sentence up based on the original that you posted and inadvertently made a pronoun error! Ironically, I attempted this problem two weeks ago and made the same careless error!! Looks like I need to brush up on those silly pronoun errors :)

But anyway, I was trying to demonstrate the use of past perfect/present + simple past since I've come across this combination a couple of times now in the course of my SC studies and at least that is how I was able to choose the correct answer to alexpavlos's SC question.

Anyways, I thought choice A was wrong because of the pronoun error 'it'. Why is the past tense fell incorrect? It makes sense that the verb 'fall' needs to be in the past since it has already happened? So for example, if C was hypothetically some other incorrect option and if A was:

which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after they fell over the last two years

wouldn't this be correct? if not, why?
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Re: San Franciscans of the 1890s mocked the claim that declared [#permalink] New post 13 May 2012, 07:25
macjas wrote:
Anyways, I thought choice A was wrong because of the pronoun error 'it'. Why is the past tense fell incorrect? It makes sense that the verb 'fall' needs to be in the past since it has already happened? So for example, if C was hypothetically some other incorrect option and if A was:

which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after they fell over the last two years

wouldn't this be correct? if not, why?


In the case you mentioned, "had been falling" will be correct. Notice: I am using Past Perfect Continuous, not Past Perfect, because the action happened CONTINUOUSLY for 2 years. See the time line below

profits falling __(2 years)_____profits increased (3 months)___Now
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Re: San Franciscans of the 1890s mocked the claim that declared [#permalink] New post 12 Jun 2012, 22:25
The Question is very confusing.. we hardly see any such questions in real GMAT
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San Franciscans of the 1890s - Chicken came 1st or Egg came [#permalink] New post 28 Jun 2012, 20:00
San Franciscans of the 1890s mocked the claim that declared Los Angeles a world city, yet within twenty years a powerful municipality had made this boast a reality.

LA's muncipality did the job in next 20 years, so why had? Am I missing something?

My bad - there are 2000 threads on this SC. So the Chicken came first;)
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Re: San Franciscans of the 1890s mocked the claim that declared [#permalink] New post 03 Jul 2014, 04:50
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Re: San Franciscans of the 1890s mocked the claim that declared [#permalink] New post 03 Jul 2014, 06:52
A, B and E all are possible in given context.
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Re: San Franciscans of the 1890s mocked the claim that declared   [#permalink] 03 Jul 2014, 06:52
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