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OK, so the sentence is in the form of: "Caribou are wary animals with excellent hearing, so [some kind of action] required exceptional hunting skill."
but they just made it more complicated by adding a lot of "fluff":
"Caribou are wary animals with excellent hearing, so stalking them over the treeless landscape, getting close enough to kill it with nothing but a handheld lance, as Dorset people did, required exceptional hunting skill."
Well, there's some discrepancy here: "stalking THEM" "getting close enough to kill IT" THEM is not consistent with IT. Something sounds weird.
You seem to have gotten this far as you chose answer (C), which correctly replaces IT with ONE.
However, the problem with (C), is that it leaves something hanging. Answer (C) does not make sense: "so in order to stalk them...blah blah blah...required exceptional hunting skill."
Answer (C) would make sense if it were more like this: "so in order to stalk them....blah blah blah...the hunter had to have exceptional hunting skill."
But since the latter part of the sentence ("required exceptional hunting skill") is NOT underlined, then we must keep it as is and look for another answer choice.
Now with answer choice (B), we fix the original issue of replacing IT with ONE. But it also makes sense... "to stalk them...blah blah blah...required exceptional hunting skill."
This makes sense! It's in the form of "To Do [X] required [Y]" --Answer (B) --notice you don't need to mention the subject in this case.
Notice how answer (C) would have had to look in order to be correct (must include the subject "hunter"): "In order to Do [X], a hunter required [Y]---but since this is not what (C) is you have to go with answer (B)
OK, with the second one, let's just look only at the important part of the sentence. So we can jump straight to this part:
"legislators cite an obstacle to congressional passage being the concern that"
Ask yourself: What is being cited?
Well, what the legislators are citing is "the concern that blah blah blah"
Legislators are citing some kind of concern.
The phrase "an obstacle to congressional passage" is just a description of that concern.
They are afraid the concern about "blah blah blah" is acting as "an obstacle to congressional passage"---meaning this concern is preventing the legislation/act/funding from passing through congress easily.
Now you chose (A)--which would be correct if it looked more like this: "legislators cite an obstacle to congressional passage AS the concern that..." But instead (A) reads: "legislators cite an obstacle to congressional passage being the concern that..."---no no no no....
The phrase "being the concern" is not right.
With answer choice (C), it reads: "legislators cite as an obstacle to congressional passage the concern that..."
Notice the "fluff" words are "as an obstacle to congressional passage"---these are just descriptive words that make sense.
Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).
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http://blog.ryandumlao.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/IMG_20130807_232118.jpg The GMAT is the biggest point of worry for most aspiring applicants, and with good reason. It’s another standardized test when most of us...