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can anyone explain why "requires of .. to pay " in OG Q 109 is wrong but the same is correct in OG Q 181.
. Because of the enormous research and
development expenditures required to survive in the electronics industry, an industry marked by rapid innovation and volatile demand, such firms tend to be very large.
(A) to survive
(B) of firms to survive
(C) for surviving
(D) for survival
(E) for firms' survival
The subject of the main clause (such firms) presumes a prior reference to the firms in question. Furthermore, the logical subject of to survive and the logical complement of required should be made explicit. All three demands are met by B, the best choice. Choices A, C, and D, with no reference to the firms in question, meet none of these demands. In choice E, the illogical and awkward use of a prepositional phrase (for firms' survival) buries the needed initial reference to firms in a possessive modifier.
Legislation in the Canadian province of Ontario
requires of both public and private employers that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are usually held by men.
(A) that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs requiring comparable skill that are
(B) that pay for jobs historically held by women should be the same as for a job requiring comparable skills
(C) to pay the same in jobs historically held by women as in jobs of comparable skill that are
(D) to pay the same regardless of whether a job was historically held by women or is one demanding comparable skills
(E) to pay as much for jobs historically held by women as for a job demanding comparable skills
Choice A is best. In choice B, should is illogical after requires, or at least unnecessary, and so is better omitted; in choices B and E, job does not agree in number with jobs; and in choices B, D, and E, the wording illogically describes the comparable skills rather than the jobs as being "usually held by men." Choices C, D, and E produce the ungrammatical construction requires of... employers to pay, in which of makes the phrase incorrect. In C, the use of in rather than for is unidiomatic, and jobs of comparable skill confusedly suggests that the jobs rather than the workers possess the skills. In D, the phrase beginning regardless ... is awkward and wordy in addition to being illogical.