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School integration plans that involve busing between

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Re: SC 618 - 700 + (very good one) [#permalink] New post 02 May 2011, 01:41
Among A,C and D.
significant is an adjective rightly modifying increase a verb and is preferred over adverb significantly.Hence A is the best choice.
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Re: SC 618 - 700 + (very good one) [#permalink] New post 02 May 2011, 04:25
GMATMadeeasy wrote:
618. School integration plans that involve busing between suburban and central-city areas have contributed, according to a recent study, to significant increases in housing integration, which, in turn, reduces any future need for busing.
(A) significant increases in housing integration, which, in turn, reduces
(B) significant integration increases in housing, which, in turn, reduces
(C) increase housing integration significantly, which, in turn, reduces
(D) increase housing integration significantly, in turn reducing
(E) significantly increase housing integration, which, in turn, reduce

I go for C .

Could someone explain each of the answer choices , I suspect why correct answer uses "reduce" over "reduces" whereas "increase in housing integration" as subject for last dependent clause is singualr.


Lets make it simple

...plans.....have contributed...to significant increases in housing integration, which in turn, reduces any future need for busing.

A is wrong as significant increases need reduce and not reduces.

B is wrong for same reason.

Lets consider C

...contributed to increase X, which, in turn, reduces.... (seems good, so keep it on hold)

D ..contributed to increase X, in turn reducing.... (keep it)

E is wrong as it needs reduces and not reduce

Among C and D...what will reduce the future need for busing:

Integration plans or increase in housing integration?

School integration plans will increase the housing integration, but it is this increase only that will reduce the future need for busing. So I will go with C.
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Re: SC 618 - 700 + (very good one) [#permalink] New post 28 Jul 2011, 01:42
contacttoakhil wrote:


Lets consider C

...contributed to increase X, which, in turn, reduces.... (seems good, so keep it on hold)

School integration plans will increase the housing integration, but it is this increase only that will reduce the future need for busing. So I will go with C.


hey guys, I went with C on this one, my reasoning is on the lines of akhil. Somewhere along the long list of posts, someone mentioned the OA as A, and after reading Pkit's explanation that "contribute to" should be followed by a noun, choice A makes sense. (This "contribute to" thing was new knowledge to me, thanks Pkit). However please explain the Subject-verb dilemma that led me in ruling out option A.

In option A: "increases in housing development" is a plural subject , so it should be "reduce" and not "reduces".

Any help ?
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Re: SC 618 - 700 + (very good one) [#permalink] New post 28 Jul 2011, 02:17
School integration plans that involve busing between suburban and central-city areas have contributed, according to a recent study, to significant increases in housing integration, which, in turn, reduces any future need for busing.
(A) significant increases in housing integration, which, in turn, reduces - which correctly modifies integration, reduces correctly belong to integration which is singular
(B) significant integration increases in housing, which, in turn, reduces - which incorrect modify housing
(C) increase housing integration significantly, which, in turn, reduces which incorrect modify significantly
(D) increase housing integration significantly, in turn reducing - increase not || to reducing
(E) significantly increase housing integration, which, in turn, reduce - "significantly" - wrong

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Re: SC 618 - 700 + (very good one) [#permalink] New post 28 Jul 2011, 02:27
WishMasterUA wrote:
(A) significant increases in housing integration, which, in turn, reduces - [color=#40BF00]which correctly modifies integration, reduces correctly belong to integration which is singular


yup, thanks, "reduces" here modifies "housing integration", as the pronoun which stands for the noun touching it, which in this case is only housing integration, which in turn is singular.

seems like I am beginning to imitate the 'which' thing of this question correctly :)
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Re: SC 618 - 700 + (very good one) [#permalink] New post 28 Jul 2011, 02:43
GMATMadeeasy wrote:
618. School integration plans that involve busing between suburban and central-city areas have contributed, according to a recent study, to significant increases in housing integration, which, in turn, reduces any future need for busing.
(A) significant increases in housing integration, which, in turn, reduces
(B) significant integration increases in housing, which, in turn, reduces
(C) increase housing integration significantly, which, in turn, reduces
(D) increase housing integration significantly, in turn reducing
(E) significantly increase housing integration, which, in turn, reduce

I go for C .

Could someone explain each of the answer choices , I suspect why correct answer uses "reduce" over "reduces" whereas "increase in housing integration" as subject for last dependent clause is singualr.


IMO it should be C
A,B,E all start with significant , whereas the "that involve busing between suburban and central-city areas have contributed,... to" increase rather than significant , between reducing and reduces , reducing sounds present tense.
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Re: SC 618 - 700 + (very good one) [#permalink] New post 28 Jul 2011, 03:58
Expert's post
IMO, X contributes to Y is the correct idiomatic expression in which X is a noun and Y is a noun. A noun is needed here after ‘to’ because; ‘to’ is a preposition and not a part of the infinitive “to+verb”. This is a very context specific idiom.

Choices CDE flout this norm and use an infinitive ‘to increase housing integration’, which is structurally flawed. Therefore, you may choose between A and B.

Choice B changes the meaning in saying “significant integration increases in housing” as if ‘integration increases’ as some kind of special increase.

This is the shortest way you can hit the tape. If you have enough time to muse in the exam hall, well then, keep munching over other points such as S-V, modifications etc
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Re: SC 618 - 700 + (very good one) [#permalink] New post 29 Jul 2011, 04:01
IMO D. The sentence suggests a cause and effect.
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Re: SC 618 - 700 + (very good one) [#permalink] New post 31 Jul 2011, 04:04
after reading the explanations i agree with A
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Re: School integration plans that involve busing between [#permalink] New post 16 Oct 2013, 08:23
618. School integration plans that involve busing between suburban and central-city areas have contributed, according to a recent study, to significant increases in housing integration, which, in turn, reduces any future need for busing.
(A) significant increases in housing integration, which, in turn, reduces
(B) significant integration increases in housing, which, in turn, reduces
(C) increase housing integration significantly, which, in turn, reduces
(D) increase housing integration significantly, in turn reducing
(E) significantly increase housing integration, which, in turn, reduce

> increases should be increase - A and B out
> what is the subject for reduces ? (it says which in turn, what is which ?) increase in integration - singular -- E out

Choice between C and D.
D is better as its a cause and effect statement. Also it is concise.
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Re: School integration plans that involve busing between [#permalink] New post 22 Oct 2013, 10:23
Hello,

I thought it was C as well. Just curious, does anyone see anything wrong with the logic below?

(A) significant increases in housing integration, which, in turn, reduces
- subject "increases" -> Verb "reduces" subject = plural vs verb = singular X
(E) significantly increase housing integration, which, in turn, reduce
- subject "integration" -> Verb "reduce" subject = singular vs verb = plural X
(C) increase housing integration significantly, which, in turn, reduces
- subject "integration" -> Verb "reduces" subject = singular vs verb = singular OK


Also, I don't think there's really any grammatical problem with "...contributed to increase" and significantly is an adverb that correctly modifies the verb increase (increases is a noun in A, but increase is a verb in C)
Re: School integration plans that involve busing between   [#permalink] 22 Oct 2013, 10:23
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