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Schools expect textbooks to be a valuable source of

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Joined: 13 Aug 2012
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Schools expect textbooks to be a valuable source of [#permalink] New post 03 Feb 2013, 21:54
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Schools expect textbooks to be a valuable source of information for students. My research suggests, however, that textbooks that address the place of Native Americans within the history of the United States distort history to suit a particular cultural value system. In some textbooks, for example, settlers are pictured as more humane, complex, skillful, and wise than Native Americans. In essence, textbooks stereotype and deprecate the numerous Native American cultures while reinforcing the attitude that the European conquest of the New World denotes the superiority of European cultures. Although textbooks evaluate Native American architecture, political systems, and homemaking, I contend that they do it from an ethnocentric, European perspective without recognizing that other perspectives are possible. One argument against my contention asserts that, by nature, textbooks are culturally biased and that I am simply underestimating children’s ability to see through these biases. Some researchers even claim that by the time students are in high school, they know they cannot take textbooks literally. Yet substantial evidence exists to the contrary. Two researchers, for example, have conducted studies that suggest that children’s attitudes about particular cultures are strongly influenced by the textbooks used in schools. Given this, an ongoing, careful review of how school textbooks depict Native Americans is certainly warranted.
6. Which of the following would most logically be the topic of the paragraph immediately following the passage?
(A) Specific ways to evaluate the biases of United States history textbooks
(B) The centrality of the teacher’s role in United States history courses
(C) Nontraditional methods of teaching United States history
(D) The contributions of European immigrants to the development of the United States
(E) Ways in which parents influence children’s political attitudes
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


7. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) describe in detail one research study regarding the impact of history textbooks on children’s attitudes and beliefs about certain cultures
(B) describe revisions that should be made to United States history textbooks
(C) discuss the difficulty of presenting an accurate history of the United States
(D) argue that textbooks used in schools stereotype Native Americans and influence children’s attitudes
(E) summarize ways in which some textbooks give distorted pictures of the political systems developed by various Native American groups
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


8. The author mentions two researchers’ studies (lines 22-25) most likely in order to
(A) suggest that children’s political attitudes are formed primarily through textbooks
(B) counter the claim that children are able to see through stereotypes in textbooks
(C) suggest that younger children tend to interpret the messages in textbooks more literally than do older children
(D) demonstrate that textbooks carry political messages meant to influence their readers
(E) prove that textbooks are not biased in terms of their political presentations
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


9. The author’s attitude toward the content of the history textbooks discussed in the passage is best described as one of
(A) indifference
(B) hesitance
(C) neutrality
(D) amusement
(E) disapproval
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


10. It can be inferred from the passage that the researchers mentioned in line 19 would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements?
(A) Students from attitudes about cultures other than their own primarily inside the school environment.
(B) For the most part, seniors in high school know that textbooks can be biased.
(C) Textbooks play a crucial role in shaping the attitudes and beliefs of students.
(D) Elementary school students are as likely to recognize biases in textbooks as are high school students.
(E) Students are less likely to give credence to history textbooks than to mathematics textbooks.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


11. The author implies that which of the following will occur if textbooks are not carefully reviewed?
(A) Children will remain ignorant of the European settlers’ conquest of the New World.
(B) Children will lose their ability to recognize biases in textbooks.
(C) Children will from negative stereotypes of Native Americans.
(D) Children will develop an understanding of ethnocentrism.
(E) Children will stop taking textbooks seriously.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C


[Reveal] Spoiler:
6. Which of the following would most logically be the topic of the paragraph immediately following the passage?

(A) Specific ways to evaluate the biases of United States history textbooks
It's best to stay near the scope of the passage - The Biases of the textbooks - CORRECT!
(B) The centrality of the teacher’s role in United States history courses
Irrelevant Issue
(C) Nontraditional methods of teaching United States history
Irrelevant Issue
(D) The contributions of European immigrants to the development of the United States
This is just the sample content in ttextbooks and not the main issue at hand
(E) Ways in which parents influence children’s political attitudes
Irrelevant Issue


7. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) describe in detail one research study regarding the impact of history textbooks on children’s attitudes and beliefs about certain cultures
the primary purpose is that textbooks are biased and why this is not a good thing... OUT!
(B) describe revisions that should be made to United States history textbooks
the author hints towards removing biases but did not describe details of how... OUT!
(C) discuss the difficulty of presenting an accurate history of the United States
Difficulty to present accurate history is OUT of SCOPE
(D) argue that textbooks used in schools stereotype Native Americans and influence children’s attitudes
This is the main issue. The stereotype is the bias and the effect is on the attitudes of children.. CORRECT
(E) summarize ways in which some textbooks give distorted pictures of the political systems developed by various Native American groups
it contends that there are bias but the main purpose is to argue that there is such bias and why there is a need to make changes.. OUT!


8. The author mentions two researchers’ studies (lines 22-25) most likely in order to

(A) suggest that children’s political attitudes are formed primarily through textbooks
primarily through textbooks - extreme and not the tone of the passage - OUT!
(B) counter the claim that children are able to see through stereotypes in textbooks
BINGO!
(C) suggest that younger children tend to interpret the messages in textbooks more literally than do older children
No such separation or contrast between younger and older children was made by the author... although the other researchers contend that high school can discern the bias.. but not of the author's point.. OUT!
(D) demonstrate that textbooks carry political messages meant to influence their readers
not the context or point of the lines 22-25.. OUT!
(E) prove that textbooks are not biased in terms of their political presentations
this is opposite of the author's argument... OUT!

9. The author’s attitude toward the content of the history textbooks discussed in the passage is best described as one of
(A) indifference
(B) hesitance
(C) neutrality
(D) amusement
(E) disapproval CORRECT! - "In essence,
textbooks stereotype and deprecate the numerous Native
American cultures while reinforcing the attitude that the
(10) European conquest of the New World denotes the superi-
ority of European cultures" - The author's tone here is disapproval...



10. It can be inferred from the passage that the researchers mentioned in line 19 would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements?

(B) For the most part, seniors in high school know that textbooks can be biased.
CORRECT - "One argument against my contention asserts that, by
nature, textbooks are culturally biased and that I am simply
underestimating children’s ability to see through these
biases. Some researchers even claim that by the time
(20) students are in high school, they know they cannot take
textbooks literally. "


11. The author implies that which of the following will occur if textbooks are not carefully reviewed?
"In essence,
textbooks stereotype and deprecate the numerous Native
American cultures while reinforcing the attitude that the
(10) European conquest of the New World denotes the superi-
ority of European cultures. Although textbooks evaluate
Native American architecture, political systems, and home-
making, I contend that they do it from an ethnocentric,
European perspective without recognizing that other
(15) perspectives are possible." - Only C shows this tone and point of the author....


(A) Children will remain ignorant of the European settlers’ conquest of the New World.
Children will not be ignorant of it if this is discussed in textbooks... biased it maybe but not ignorant...
(B) Children will lose their ability to recognize biases in textbooks.
ability to recognize was not supported by the author at all...
(C) Children will from negative stereotypes of Native Americans.
(D) Children will develop an understanding of ethnocentrism.
this is wacked! heck no!
(E) Children will stop taking textbooks seriously.
not the issue

_________________

Impossible is nothing to God.

Schools expect textbooks to be a valuable source of   [#permalink] 03 Feb 2013, 21:54
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