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Scientists have recently discovered what could be the

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Scientists have recently discovered what could be the [#permalink] New post 03 Jun 2003, 15:29
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Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

(A) extending
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended
(E) is extending
[Reveal] Spoiler:
Why is extending and spawned parallel participial phrases?
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Re: Olding Living Organism [#permalink] New post 23 Sep 2010, 04:27
spawned by a signle fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago
AND
extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest

both refer to : an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles

the way I think of this is to imagine as if there was just one sentence here and no "AND" connector, and try and see what fits in best on the second sentence. The only form of "extend" that fits in well is "extending"... it is trying to to describe what an unfus is. A filigree extening for 30 acres makes sense ... a filigree extended for 30 acres, doesnt sound correct
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Re: Olding Living Organism [#permalink] New post 23 Sep 2010, 06:26
piyushagarwal wrote:
I still don't get this one.. The reference to extending is a little unclear to me...


Let me try ...

The reason we have extending and not extended because extending signifies that it still happens today.
As per the first part of the sentence its the oldest living organism.

Hope that helps.
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Re: Olding Living Organism [#permalink] New post 23 Sep 2010, 07:55
Waylon wrote:
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant unfus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a signle fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

(A) extending
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended
(E) is extending

the correct answer is (A); after reading the solution in OG, I still don't understand why (A) is correct. Can someone explain it? Thanks in advance!



I think A is right. This is progressive tense structure where is activity is going on and will go on in the future." Extending" is a version of that itself.
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Re: Olding Living Organism [#permalink] New post 23 Sep 2010, 11:37
shrouded1 wrote:
spawned by a signle fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago
AND
extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest

both refer to : an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles

the way I think of this is to imagine as if there was just one sentence here and no "AND" connector, and try and see what fits in best on the second sentence. The only form of "extend" that fits in well is "extending"... it is trying to to describe what an unfus is. A filigree extening for 30 acres makes sense ... a filigree extended for 30 acres, doesnt sound correct



Looks to me 'Extending' modifies the giant fungus and not filigree.
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Re: Olding Living Organism [#permalink] New post 23 Sep 2010, 12:16
will go with A.......others options don't appeal too much........
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Re: Olding Living Organism [#permalink] New post 24 Sep 2010, 01:41
onedayill wrote:
piyushagarwal wrote:
I still don't get this one.. The reference to extending is a little unclear to me...


Let me try ...

The reason we have extending and not extended because extending signifies that it still happens today.
As per the first part of the sentence its the oldest living organism.

Hope that helps.


Thanks :)
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OG12 #42...got me [#permalink] New post 11 Oct 2010, 13:49
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

(A) extending
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended
(E) is extending

Please explain your reasoning...thanks.
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Re: OG12 #42...got me [#permalink] New post 11 Oct 2010, 17:28
Scientists have recently discovered a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree and root and extending for more than 30 acres

I was confused between A and E
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Re: OG12 #42...got me [#permalink] New post 11 Oct 2010, 17:42
Here are the explanations...although I'm still hoping that someone will provide their own input...:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A Correct. Th is sentence has the participles spawned and extending in a correct parallel construction. Spawned refers to something that happened in the past, while extending
refers to something that continues into the present.

B Extends is a present tense verb, not the participle needed for parallel structure; the
ostensible parallel between extends and the distant verb is is superficial and would result in an awkward and unclear sentence.

C Extended looks parallel to spawned, but this phrase would mean that the fungus
extended only in the past when the fungus clearly lives on in the present.

D It extended is not parallel to spawned and indicates an event completed in the past.

E Is extending is the progressive form of the present tense verb, not the participle required for parallelism.

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Re: OG12 #42...got me [#permalink] New post 17 Oct 2010, 18:51
Parallelism really is the key issue here. Any time there are two verbs that fall into the same category, those verbs need to be parallel. For example:

"The dog ran and barked." --> "Ran" and "barked" both fall into the category "things the dog did," so they both need to be in the same tense.

"Yesterday, I went to the beach and spent the day swimming and tanning." --> "Swimming" and "Tanning" both fall into the category "things I did at the beach yesterday," so they both need to be in the same tense. Notice that "went" is a different tense because it doesn't fall into the category "things I did at the beach yesterday." You could say "Yesterday, I went to the beach, spent the day swimming, and tanned" but this would change the meaning because there's no indication that the second two verbs were done while at the beach.

In the example above, there are two participles describing the fungus, so they must be parallel.
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Re: OG12 #42...got me [#permalink] New post 17 Oct 2010, 20:18
BKimball wrote:
Parallelism really is the key issue here. Any time there are two verbs that fall into the same category, those verbs need to be parallel. For example:

"The dog ran and barked." --> "Ran" and "barked" both fall into the category "things the dog did," so they both need to be in the same tense.

"Yesterday, I went to the beach and spent the day swimming and tanning." --> "Swimming" and "Tanning" both fall into the category "things I did at the beach yesterday," so they both need to be in the same tense. Notice that "went" is a different tense because it doesn't fall into the category "things I did at the beach yesterday." You could say "Yesterday, I went to the beach, spent the day swimming, and tanned" but this would change the meaning because there's no indication that the second two verbs were done while at the beach.

In the example above, there are two participles describing the fungus, so they must be parallel.

Thank you BKimball.

I guess I was looking for anothing "ing" participle to parallel "extending" with...this would be a tough one for me to get on the exam :(
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Re: OG12 #42...got me [#permalink] New post 17 Oct 2010, 21:27
BKimball wrote:
Parallelism really is the key issue here. Any time there are two verbs that fall into the same category, those verbs need to be parallel. For example:

"The dog ran and barked." --> "Ran" and "barked" both fall into the category "things the dog did," so they both need to be in the same tense.

"Yesterday, I went to the beach and spent the day swimming and tanning." --> "Swimming" and "Tanning" both fall into the category "things I did at the beach yesterday," so they both need to be in the same tense. Notice that "went" is a different tense because it doesn't fall into the category "things I did at the beach yesterday." You could say "Yesterday, I went to the beach, spent the day swimming, and tanned" but this would change the meaning because there's no indication that the second two verbs were done while at the beach.

In the example above, there are two participles describing the fungus, so they must be parallel.


In this case, aren't the two participles describing the "fungus", i.e. spawned and extending, in different tenses - past and present participle respectively? Can they be in parallel while modifying a noun?
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Re: OG12 #42...got me [#permalink] New post 18 Oct 2010, 03:25
vitamingmat wrote:
Why cannot it be a B option??


B Extends is a present tense verb, not the participle needed for parallel structure; the
ostensible parallel between extends and the distant verb is is superficial and would result in an awkward and unclear sentence.
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Re: 210. OG 10th Ed. - Scientists have recently discovered.. [#permalink] New post 15 Jan 2011, 04:23
Becuase 'Scientists have RECENTLY discovered' ... so we're talking about present

C & D are past tenses, eliminate both.

rootlike tentacles
SPAWNED by a single spore ...
and
EXTENDING for more than 30 acres ...

Note here that extends and is extending do not fit in.
rootlike tentacles
SPAWNED by a single spore ...
and
EXTENDS/IS EXTENDING for more than 30 acres ...

Answer: A

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Re: Olding Living Organism [#permalink] New post 28 Jan 2011, 09:17
can someone explain me why the answer is:

tentacles spawned by... and extending for ...

and not:

fungus is .... and extends...
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Re: Olding Living Organism [#permalink] New post 28 Jan 2011, 22:07
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The reason why there is so much confusion here is that the principles of participle usage have not been understood well. A participle though called present or past participle per se does not indicate the sense of the tense. It goes along with the tense of the main clause.

In the above simple sentence, if the intruding descriptive structures are removed, the clause will read under

Scientists have recently discovered a giant fungus, spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in
the soil of a Michigan forest


“spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest” is indeed the long, long participial phrase .The participles ‘spawned’ ( past participle ) and extending( present participle ) both refer to the fungus and not to the filigree or the tentacles. If it were to refer to tentacles, it should say “tentacles that were spawned and that are extending”. Logically only a fungus can be spawned and not the tentacles.

@Cracky: You are trying to parallelize ‘a fungus is’ with ‘a fungus extends’ because both are in present tense. In the process you have forgotten the all important ‘spawned by’ .The second leg of the participial phrase 'extending' should parallel the first leg 'spawned'. It is legitimate to use both past and present participles as parallel structures in the same sentence. Hence A is the right answer, as many have already said.

P.S. I have a small note prepared for my students on this topic, titled A Pamphlet on the Use of Participles in GMAT, running to about 25 pages . Perhaps that may be of help to some.
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Re: Olding Living Organism [#permalink] New post 05 Feb 2011, 06:47
A is right because it is extending at the moment.
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Re: Olding Living Organism [#permalink] New post 05 Feb 2011, 15:55
C conveys that extension process is over, whereas A says that the process is still continuing. Hence A is better than C.
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Re: Olding Living Organism [#permalink] New post 05 Feb 2011, 23:41
daagh wrote:
The reason why there is so much confusion here is that the principles of participle usage have not been understood well. A participle though called present or past participle per se does not indicate the sense of the tense. It goes along with the tense of the main clause.

In the above simple sentence, if the intruding descriptive structures are removed, the clause will read under

Scientists have recently discovered a giant fungus, spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in
the soil of a Michigan forest


“spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest” is indeed the long, long participial phrase .The participles ‘spawned’ ( past participle ) and extending( present participle ) both refer to the fungus and not to the filigree or the tentacles. If it were to refer to tentacles, it should say “tentacles that were spawned and that are extending”. Logically only a fungus can be spawned and not the tentacles.

@Cracky: You are trying to parallelize ‘a fungus is’ with ‘a fungus extends’ because both are in present tense. In the process you have forgotten the all important ‘spawned by’ .The second leg of the participial phrase 'extending' should parallel the first leg 'spawned'. It is legitimate to use both past and present participles as parallel structures in the same sentence. Hence A is the right answer, as many have already said.

P.S. I have a small note prepared for my students on this topic, titled A Pamphlet on the Use of Participles in GMAT, running to about 25 pages . Perhaps that may be of help to some.
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Thank you Daagh. Great explanation. The structure is clear now.
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Re: Olding Living Organism [#permalink] New post 07 Feb 2011, 05:23
I also got stuck on this while while working with the OG. Extending is the correct usage.
Re: Olding Living Organism   [#permalink] 07 Feb 2011, 05:23
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