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Scientists have recently discovered what could be the

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Scientists have recently discovered what could be the [#permalink] New post 03 Jun 2003, 15:29
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Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

(A) extending
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended
(E) is extending
[Reveal] Spoiler:
Why is extending and spawned parallel participial phrases?
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Re: Brutal OG question [#permalink] New post 19 May 2010, 02:49
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RaviChandra wrote:
thanku can some one post the explanation OG12. i dont have that book

I'm not sure this is legal in this forum. Otherwise I apologize to the moderators and won't do it again.

Full explanation from OG12:

The original sentence is correctly written. The giant fungus is described as an interwoven filigree spawned ... some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres. The present participle extending parallels the past participle spawned.

A Correct. This sentence has the participles spawned and extending in a correct parallel construction. Spawned refers to something that happened in the past, while extending refers to something that continues into the present.
B Extends is a present tense verb, not the participle needed for parallel structure; the ostensible parallel between extends and the distant verb is is superficial and would result in an awkward and unclear sentence.
C Extended looks parallel to spawned, but this phrase would mean that the fungus extended on in the past when the fungus clearly lives on in the present.
D It extended is not parallel to spawned and indicates an event completed in the past.
E Is extending is the progressive form of the present tense verb, not the participle required for parallelism.
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Re: Sentence Correction question [#permalink] New post 19 Jul 2010, 19:31
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both "spawned" and "extending" are used here as adjectives to modify fungus [ignore the relative clause "that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles" which also modifies fungus]:

spawned (past participle)
extending (present participle)

you can make any form of adjectives parallel.
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Re: Olding Living Organism [#permalink] New post 28 Jan 2011, 22:07
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The reason why there is so much confusion here is that the principles of participle usage have not been understood well. A participle though called present or past participle per se does not indicate the sense of the tense. It goes along with the tense of the main clause.

In the above simple sentence, if the intruding descriptive structures are removed, the clause will read under

Scientists have recently discovered a giant fungus, spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in
the soil of a Michigan forest


“spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest” is indeed the long, long participial phrase .The participles ‘spawned’ ( past participle ) and extending( present participle ) both refer to the fungus and not to the filigree or the tentacles. If it were to refer to tentacles, it should say “tentacles that were spawned and that are extending”. Logically only a fungus can be spawned and not the tentacles.

@Cracky: You are trying to parallelize ‘a fungus is’ with ‘a fungus extends’ because both are in present tense. In the process you have forgotten the all important ‘spawned by’ .The second leg of the participial phrase 'extending' should parallel the first leg 'spawned'. It is legitimate to use both past and present participles as parallel structures in the same sentence. Hence A is the right answer, as many have already said.

P.S. I have a small note prepared for my students on this topic, titled A Pamphlet on the Use of Participles in GMAT, running to about 25 pages . Perhaps that may be of help to some.
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered [#permalink] New post 29 Mar 2011, 21:45
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Ideally an action that was started in the past, that continues thorough he present and that might extend to the future, must be expressed with a perfect tense. But in the above case, are these conditions extant? No doubt the action of spawning (spawning means seeding) was done in the past and ended in the past. The spawning is not continuing today. The other event extending was not there 10,000 years ago, becos, at that point of time the fungus did not occupy 30 acres. So in both areas, a prefect tense becomes irrelevant.

What is the alternative then? A present tense such as is spawned to denote a completed action is ungrammatical. It is in such places that the use of participles, whether past or present is handy. That is why the sentence is using spawned, a past participle for spawning and present participle extending for the other event. As per norms of participles, it is parallel to use past and present participles in the same sentence.

C, which seems to use the speciously more parallel extended[/color]\, is wrong, becos the first arm says ‘spawned by’ while the second arm just says 'extended'. In essence, unless it clarifies ‘extended by what’, there is good reason to assume that it was extended by the same single fertilized spore. This is not logical.
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered [#permalink] New post 29 Oct 2011, 21:26
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ajit257 wrote:
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the
largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant
fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and
rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore
some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than
30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

(A) extending
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended
(E) is extending

I know this question might be discussed a number of times but I am not looking for an answer. If someone could clarify the concept of action started in the past and continues in the future...would be of great help.

Also please clarify in the absence of present perfect what is to be used ..participle or present tense.

Any kind of help is highly appreciated.



Hi,

The parallelism in this case is between participles. Spawned is past participle and extending is present participle. There is no helping verb (is, are etc) before spawned and for sake of parallelism we need to ensure that we dont have a helping verb before extending. Hence E is incorrect.

Answer is A.

Hope this helps.
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what... [#permalink] New post 21 Sep 2012, 23:17
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The underlined word is a part of a parallel structure "spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago AND extending for more than 30 acres" and, therefore, it should be grammatically and logically parallel with the word "spawned."

"Spawned" acts here as an adjective.
A - correct because "extending" is also used as an adjective and it is logically parallel with "spawned"
B - incorrect, "extends" is a conjugated verb
C- incorrect for the same reason as B
D - "it extended" changes the second part of the parallel structure into a clause, so it is incorrect to compare an adjective with a clause
E - incorrect, 'is extending" is a conjugated verb
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Re: Scientists have recently discovered what could be the [#permalink] New post 19 Sep 2013, 09:36
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Scientists have recently discovered what could be the [#permalink] New post 26 Jun 2014, 20:47
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niyantg wrote:
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

In the 2nd part of this sentence - after the comma
If spawned & extending are participles
then there would be no Verb for the noun " a giant fungus " in this clause.

Is it because it is a Noun phrase/absolute phrase ?

You are correct in that the portion starting from a giant fungus is an absolute modifier. Absolute modifiers have the following construct: Noun + Noun modifier.

a giant fungus is clearly the Noun here. As for Noun modifier, there are three primary ways in which Noun modifiers can appear in English:

i) As Relative clause
ii) As Present Participles
iii) As Past Participles

The reason why this particular sentence is a beautiful study in Noun modifiers is because it uses all the three types of Noun modifiers:

i) Relative clause: that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles
ii) Present Participles: extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest
iii) Past Participles: spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago

p.s. Our book SC Nirvana discusses Absolute modifiers, their application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email, I can send you the corresponding section.
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NonParallel Choices For Stem [#permalink] New post 03 Jun 2003, 16:02
C) extended if it is assumed to be nonparallel in a verb tense.

Why is that?

D) It Extended - same thing

E) is extending- what do they mean it ungrammatically introduces a new predicate
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Re: Parallel Participles [#permalink] New post 05 Jun 2003, 16:41
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VTay25 wrote:
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and ( extending) for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

Why is extending and spawned parallel participial phrases?



It is not paralel; but if you said extended the sentece would be bizarre. You won't want it to be parallel, lets put it this way :wink: The only way to go is extending.
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Hard SC- 15 [#permalink] New post 03 Sep 2004, 07:03
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

(A) extending
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended
(E) is extending
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 [#permalink] New post 03 Sep 2004, 09:26
I choose B.

The oldest living organism extends for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

Please correct me if I am wrong.

Regards,

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 [#permalink] New post 05 Nov 2004, 15:38
Yeah, I chose B(extended) ,and I'm not sure why the OA is A...
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 [#permalink] New post 05 Nov 2004, 16:24
Sorry , I meant to say i picked B after looking at the answer choices
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OG210 fungus [#permalink] New post 11 Feb 2005, 14:38
210. Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.
(A) extending
(B) extends
(C) extended
(D) it extended
(E) is extending

Explanation please.
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 [#permalink] New post 11 Feb 2005, 14:53
You can find the answer here.
http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=11305

This one has tricky parallelism with the use of participle phrases. You can get more this type of question in 885SC.
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 [#permalink] New post 11 Feb 2005, 15:38
paul wrote:
This question is about the use of present vs past participle.
present participle is used to denote a present condition that still prevails
past participle is used to denote a completed action, usually in a passive mood

The sentence is definitely talking about the filigree:

filigree [of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles] spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest


That's a great explanation. What I was thinking was that "extends" was parallel to "is" like this:

"a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree and extends for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest. "

I suppose I'd need a "that" before "extends", is it right?
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 [#permalink] New post 11 Feb 2005, 15:59
Quote:
I suppose I'd need a "that" before "extends", is it right?


Yes
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SC- how to solve this? [#permalink] New post 21 Mar 2005, 13:17
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is a interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 1000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soill of a michigan forest.
a. extending
b. exteds
c. extended
d. it extended
e. is extending

i think extended parallel with spawed
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 [#permalink] New post 21 Mar 2005, 13:21
check out the following link. its been already discussed few times here in the club.

http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=11305
  [#permalink] 21 Mar 2005, 13:21
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