117. Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty, it is commonly thought that this happens because aging by itself bring about a loss of creative capacity. However, studies how that of scientist who products highly creative work beyond the age of forty, a disproportionately large number entered their field at an older age than is usual.
Since by the age of forty the large majority of scientists have been working in their field for at least fifteen years, the studies' finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientist over forty rarely produce highly creative work is not that they have aged but rather that scientists over forty have generally spent too long their field.
In the argument gives, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
a) The first is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument, the second is a conclusion drawn on the basis of that claim.
b) The first is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the argument, the second is that position.
c) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is that explaination
d) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explaination that the argument challenges; the second is a competing explaination that the argument favors
e) The first provides evidence to support an explaination that the argument favors; the second is tha explanation.
What's the difference between the challenges & favors in passage?