can't we argue that A can also pass? Isn't the accuracy inherently being challenged by the simple fact that two positions are present? This seem's to be a trouble area for me?
Though your doubt is addressed to Becky, I just thought to share my two cents
Before we check whether the accuracy has been challenged, let me ask you one thing: Do you think that the first is a claim?
A) the first is a claim
, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on the basis of that claim"Studies show that of scientists who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty, a disproportionately large number of the scientists entered their field at an older age than is usual."
Passage says that 'studies show xyz.' Thus, it simply states a fact. Does the argument challenges the accuracy of this fact?
No! In fact, it is used in support of the explanation that argument favors (BF2). The accuracy of the first explanation has been challenged. It suggests ageing is the cause for loss of creativity; however, argument contradicts this explanation and states 'spending too long in the field' is the real cause.
It's very important to be in author's shoes always so rather seeing these as two contradictory positions, you should see them as position countered by the argument and position taken by the argument.
As a thumb rule, you should always begin boldface questions by segregating all the statements into facts and opinions. This will help you avoid some common traps as one tested in this question.
For this, read each statement and classify it as a fact or an opinion as follow:
Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty. - It's a Fact.
It is commonly thought
that this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative capacity. This explains the reason for loss of creativity after 40.
However, studies show
that of scientists who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty, a disproportionately large number of the scientists entered their field at an older age than is usual.
This statement begins with a contrast marker so we can expect the flow of the passage to change. As studies show this information, the statement presents another fact.
Thus we know, that BF1 is a FACT and not a claim.
Since by the age of forty the large majority of scientists have been working in their field for at least fifteen years,
the studies' finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely produce highly creative work is not that they have simply aged but rather that scientists over forty have generally spent too long in their given field. It presents the explanation that argument supports. Note: This explanation has been drawn in contradiction to the first explanation.
Now look at option A
A) the first is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on the basis of that claim
BF1 is not a claim; it's a fact. The accuracy of the fact is not at issue in the argument, in fact this fact has been used to support the explanation supported by the argument; second is based on BF1, the fact.
Hope this helps!