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Scientists typically do their most creative work before the

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Scientists typically do their most creative work before the [#permalink] New post 25 Sep 2008, 10:44
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Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty. It is commonly
thought that this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative
capacity
. However, a study has found that almost all scientists who produce highly
creative work beyond the age of forty entered their fields late and less than a dozen years
before their creative breakthroughs. Since creative breakthroughs by scientists under
forty also generally occur within a dozen years of the scientist’s entry into the field
,
the study’s finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely
produce highly creative work is not due to age but rather because most have spent too
long in their fields.
In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
A. The first is the position that the argument as a whole defends; the second is
evidence that is advanced as part of that defense.
B. The first and second are both claims that have been advanced in support of a
position that the argument as a whole opposes.
C. The first is an explanation that the argument challenges; the second provides
evidence in support of a competing explanation that the argument defends.
D. The first is an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is evidence
that has been used against an alternative explanation that the argument defends.
E. The first is an explanation that the argument defends; the second is evidence that
has been used to challenge that explanation.
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Re: CR - Boldface [#permalink] New post 25 Sep 2008, 11:18
vivektripathi wrote:
Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty. It is commonly
thought that this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative
capacity
. However, a study has found that almost all scientists who produce highly
creative work beyond the age of forty entered their fields late and less than a dozen years
before their creative breakthroughs. Since creative breakthroughs by scientists under
forty also generally occur within a dozen years of the scientist’s entry into the field
,
the study’s finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely
produce highly creative work is not due to age but rather because most have spent too
long in their fields.
In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
A. The first is the position that the argument as a whole defends; the second is
evidence that is advanced as part of that defense.
B. The first and second are both claims that have been advanced in support of a
position that the argument as a whole opposes.
C. The first is an explanation that the argument challenges; the second provides
evidence in support of a competing explanation that the argument defends.
D. The first is an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is evidence
that has been used against an alternative explanation that the argument defends.
E. The first is an explanation that the argument defends; the second is evidence that
has been used to challenge that explanation.


Answer must be C.

The author opposes the age factor. Use of 'because' in line 2 clarifies that Boldface1 is an explainaition to the first age factor which the author opposes.

The author defends that the factor is time spent in the field. Boldface2 is a factual evidence on which the time factor depends.
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Re: CR - Boldface [#permalink] New post 25 Sep 2008, 11:49
I'd go for D. I don't think boldface #2 is evidence.
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Re: CR - Boldface [#permalink] New post 25 Sep 2008, 12:20
E for me.
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Re: CR - Boldface [#permalink] New post 25 Sep 2008, 19:07
vivektripathi wrote:
Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty. It is commonly
thought that this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative
capacity
. However, a study has found that almost all scientists who produce highly
creative work beyond the age of forty entered their fields late and less than a dozen years
before their creative breakthroughs. Since creative breakthroughs by scientists under
forty also generally occur within a dozen years of the scientist’s entry into the field
,
the study’s finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely
produce highly creative work is not due to age but rather because most have spent too
long in their fields.
In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
A. The first is the position that the argument as a whole defends; the second is
evidence that is advanced as part of that defense.
B. The first and second are both claims that have been advanced in support of a
position that the argument as a whole opposes.
C. The first is an explanation that the argument challenges; the second provides
evidence in support of a competing explanation that the argument defends.
D. The first is an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is evidence
that has been used against an alternative explanation that the argument defends.
E. The first is an explanation that the argument defends; the second is evidence that
has been used to challenge that explanation.


(C)

The first is an explanation that the argument challenges - "However" followed by the first bold face is the proof of the challenge.

The second provides evidence in support of a competing explanation ("not due to age but rather because most have spent too long in their fields.") that the argument defends.
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Re: CR - Boldface [#permalink] New post 25 Sep 2008, 21:17
I'd go for C. Whats the OA ?
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Re: CR - Boldface [#permalink] New post 25 Sep 2008, 21:34
IMO E.

According to me the author is defending the age factor. Only E does that,
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Re: CR - Boldface [#permalink] New post 26 Sep 2008, 00:34
vivektripathi wrote:
Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty. It is commonly
thought that this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative
capacity
. However, a study has found that almost all scientists who produce highly
creative work beyond the age of forty entered their fields late and less than a dozen years
before their creative breakthroughs. Since creative breakthroughs by scientists under
forty also generally occur within a dozen years of the scientist’s entry into the field
,
the study’s finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely
produce highly creative work is not due to age but rather because most have spent too
long in their fields.
In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
A. The first is the position that the argument as a whole defends; the second is
evidence that is advanced as part of that defense.
B. The first and second are both claims that have been advanced in support of a
position that the argument as a whole opposes.
C. The first is an explanation that the argument challenges; the second provides
evidence in support of a competing explanation that the argument defends.
D. The first is an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is evidence
that has been used against an alternative explanation that the argument defends.
E. The first is an explanation that the argument defends; the second is evidence that
has been used to challenge that explanation.




IMO C
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Re: CR - Boldface [#permalink] New post 29 Sep 2008, 02:22
C for me as well.
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Re: CR - Boldface [#permalink] New post 29 Sep 2008, 06:41
C.
The author challenges the fact 1 as a false explanation and uses fact 2 to support his alternative explanation that it is not the chronological age but the age of research (years of research) that matters.
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Re: CR - Boldface [#permalink] New post 29 Sep 2008, 18:52
I think that C should be the answer. Whts the OA?
Re: CR - Boldface   [#permalink] 29 Sep 2008, 18:52
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