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I'm still not completely clear on this. I recently found this in the OG 12. Does anyone else have any comments on this?
OG 12 says that--in the following example --the verb following after (or once) should be in the present-perfect tense to indicate that the trimming must occur before the tourists arrive.
"A proposal has been made to trim the horns from rhinoceroses to discourage poachers; the question is whether tourists will continue to vist game parks to see rhinoceroses once the animals' horns have been trimmed."
Can anyone please explain if this is a general rule, or if it was just specific to this question.
"before" and "after" are always triggers for PERFECT tense for me. I am curious about others experience but every time I see a before/after, it is always used with a present/past perfect tense. e.g. Jim ate dinner after he had watched the movie.
Future and past perfect tenses necessarily need the after/before clause but present perfect is an exception.
The present prefect tense is used in the following situations:
The exact time of the action is not known. "For" and "since" can be used to state the time of the action. The action is not completed at the time of speaking/writing The action happened before you expect. The action has been repeated numerous time, and is expected to be repeated in the future.
To explain this further, note that both situations mentiond below dont demand a before/after clause, it is lmplicitly understood.
We use the Present Perfect Tense to talk about experiences. It is important if we have done it in our lives or not. It is not important when we did it.
Examples I have been abroad two times. Anna has never broken a leg. Have you ever eaten sushi?
Note:We often use never and ever with the Present Perfect Tense to talk about experience.
We also use the Present Perfect Tense to talk about a past action that has the result in the present.
Examples I have lost my wallet. = I don't have it now. Jimmy has gone to South America. = He isn't here now. Have you finished your homework? = Is your homework ready?