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Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its

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Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its [#permalink] New post 22 Sep 2011, 19:37
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Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

A. because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will
B. with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target
C. because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would
D. due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target
E. due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will


[Reveal] Spoiler:
Ans : A


Though he had had success broadcasting his controversial radio program on highly regulated terrestrial airwaves, Howard Stern opted out of terrestrial broadcasting in favor of the less regulated satellite radio medium.
a) Though he had had
b)Though he has had
c) Even though he had
d) Having had
e) Having achieved

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Ans: A
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Re: 2 SC questions where Meaning/Intent is important. [#permalink] New post 22 Sep 2011, 22:11
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crick20002002 wrote:
Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

A. because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will
B. with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target
C. because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would
D. due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target
E. due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will


[Reveal] Spoiler:
Ans : A


Answer: A
Rule - 'due to' in Gmat is synonymous to 'caused by'. As a check, replace 'due to' with 'caused by' in the sentence, if it sounds odd, then stick to the answer option that has 'because'.

crick20002002 wrote:
Though he had had success broadcasting his controversial radio program on highly regulated terrestrial airwaves, Howard Stern opted out of terrestrial broadcasting in favor of the less regulated satellite radio medium.
a) Though he had had
b)Though he has had
c) Even though he had
d) Having had
e) Having achieved

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Ans: A


Answer: A
We are talking about two events here:
1. his success in broadcasting over regulated terrestrial airwaves
2. him opting out of terrestrial broadcasting in favour of something else

Since both events are in the past, with (1) being completed earlier than (2), we use 'had had' when referring to (1).

RULE
When to use 'had had':
i. there must be two events
ii. both events are in the past
iii. use 'had had' with the earlier of the two past events.
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Re: 2 SC questions where Meaning/Intent is important. [#permalink] New post 22 Sep 2011, 22:13
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Sample 1. Two things leaning more on grammar are important here.
1.Which to use Whether analysts predicted or analysts have been predicting. Considering that, the prediction is still going on and not a competed task, we need to use present progressive tense. So A and D survive.
2. Use of the subjunctive mood verb 'be raised' in the sub clause is inappropriate. Prediction is not a bossy theme to entail the command subjunctive.

Therefore, A is the choice

Sample 2 deals with use of past perfect tense. In the underlined, portion the first ‘had’ denotes the past perfect marker and the second ‘had’ denotes the past participle of the verb ‘have’ meaning ‘achieved’.

a) Though he had had --- use of past perfect is appropriate since he had done so before he opted out - a verb of simple of past ---- correct choice.
b) Though he has had … use of present perfect is wrong when the whole scenario is in past setting.
c) Even though he had … absence of the first [color=#0000FF]had means the sentence is using two simple past tenses for denoting two events that happened at two different times; we need to use past perfect for the earlier event. .. Wrong [/color]
d) Having had ----A contrast marker is essential; Instead of contrast, the clause marks cause and effect … a case of altered intent
e) Having achieved ---- same as D
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Re: 2 SC questions where Meaning/Intent is important. [#permalink] New post 21 Sep 2013, 21:12
gmatopoeia wrote:
crick20002002 wrote:
Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

A. because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will
B. with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target
C. because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would
D. due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target
E. due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will


[Reveal] Spoiler:
Ans : A


Answer: A
Rule - 'due to' in Gmat is synonymous to 'caused by'. As a check, replace 'due to' with 'caused by' in the sentence, if it sounds odd, then stick to the answer option that has 'because'.

crick20002002 wrote:
Though he had had success broadcasting his controversial radio program on highly regulated terrestrial airwaves, Howard Stern opted out of terrestrial broadcasting in favor of the less regulated satellite radio medium.
a) Though he had had
b)Though he has had
c) Even though he had
d) Having had
e) Having achieved

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Ans: A


Answer: A
We are talking about two events here:
1. his success in broadcasting over regulated terrestrial airwaves
2. him opting out of terrestrial broadcasting in favour of something else

Since both events are in the past, with (1) being completed earlier than (2), we use 'had had' when referring to (1).

RULE
When to use 'had had':
i. there must be two events
ii. both events are in the past
iii. use 'had had' with the earlier of the two past events.


Due to = caused by, excellent, thank you!

but cannot agree with the rule for "had had", it's too generic. Ex: we went out, rain caugth us. No need for "had gone" for 1st verb, since it's just a sequence of events.
But in the example above, "had had" refers to "accomplishemet", that's why it's used. Excellent explanation by daagh!
Re: 2 SC questions where Meaning/Intent is important.   [#permalink] 21 Sep 2013, 21:12
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