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# Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to build

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Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to build [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2010, 09:16
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55% (hard)

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45% (01:34) correct 55% (00:51) wrong based on 173 sessions

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Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to
build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so
smoothly and perfectly
that the air passing over
them would not become turbulent.

(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and
perfectly so

I could never infer the ans. Can some explain the reason behind the ans. Thanks
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Ajit

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Re: Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2010, 21:05
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ajit257 wrote:
Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to
build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so
smoothly and perfectly
that the air passing over
them would not become turbulent.

(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and
perfectly so

I could never infer the ans. Can some explain the reason behind the ans. Thanks

Ajit, you have this q floating around already in this forum. Try to search it and will provide you deeper insights

You see them in the part of the sentence that is not underlined right, this introduces ambiguity, what does them refer to manufacturers or wings, now B and E solves this by using a resumptive modifier.

Resumptive modifier is nothing but a modifier that is restated such that it avoids any ambiguities. No btwn B and E, perfect use of Idiom So that makes B stand alone
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Re: Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have [#permalink]

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15 Sep 2013, 03:01
mailnavin1 wrote:
ajit257 wrote:

You see them in the part of the sentence that is not underlined right, this introduces ambiguity, what does them refer to manufacturers or wings, now B and E solves this by using a resumptive modifier.

Resumptive modifier is nothing but a modifier that is restated such that it avoids any ambiguities. No btwn B and E, perfect use of Idiom So that makes B stand alone

That's brilliantly explained, was trying to understand this SC problem for quite a few days now..
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Re: Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to build [#permalink]

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15 Sep 2013, 11:48
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Hi akshaychaturvedi007

This question is quite tough. I just want to elaborate more. Hope it helps you.

Some theories:
(1) So X that Y --> correct idiom
(2) HAVING BEEN + P2 ==> perfect gerund
--> denotes a state or condition that no longer subsists at the time of speaking

Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly that the air passing over them would not become turbulent.

(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
Wrong. Verb-ed + comma ==> modifies preceding noun "wings" correctly. BUT A is wrong because "them" refers to airplanes or wings? very ambiguous.
The structure of A is: "airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so X that Y passing over them......" ==> "them" is not clear.

(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
Correct. The blue part is absolute phrase modifier --> "them" only refers to the closest noun "wings" --> correct.

(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
Wrong. "smooth" and "perfect" are ADJECTIVES, but we need adverbs after verb "shaped" --> "smoothly" and "perfectly" are correct, NOT "smooth and perfect".

(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
Wrong. Same error as in A. "them" in non-underlined part refers to what? airplanes or wings?

(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and perfectly so
Wrong. HAVING BEEN + shaped --> perfect gerund --> denotes a state or condition that no longer subsists at the time of speaking ==> Clearly changes meaning --> wrong.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to build [#permalink]

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Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to build [#permalink]

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22 Feb 2016, 12:03
Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to
build airplanes with frictionless wings
, shaped so
smoothly and perfectly that the air passing over
them would not become turbulent.

highlighted is the full sentence with non=highlighted is a modifier which define frictionless wings ........... IMO B

(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and
Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to build   [#permalink] 22 Feb 2016, 12:03
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# Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to build

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