This question is quite tough. I just want to elaborate more. Hope it helps you.Some theories:(1) So X that Y --> correct idiom
(2) HAVING BEEN + P2 ==> perfect gerund
--> denotes a state or condition that no longer subsists at the time of speaking
Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
that the air passing over them would not become turbulent.
(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
Wrong. Verb-ed + comma ==> modifies preceding noun "wings" correctly. BUT A is wrong because "them" refers to airplanes or wings? very ambiguous.
The structure of A is: "airplanes
with frictionless wings
, shaped so X that Y passing over them
......" ==> "them" is not clear.
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shapedCorrect.
The blue part is absolute phrase modifier --> "them" only refers to the closest noun "wings" --> correct.
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
Wrong. "smooth" and "perfect" are ADJECTIVES, but we need adverbs
after verb "shaped" --> "smoothly" and "perfectly"
are correct, NOT "smooth and perfect".
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
Wrong. Same error as in A. "them
" in non-underlined part refers to what? airplanes or wings?
(E) wings, wings having been shaped
smoothly and perfectly so
Wrong. HAVING BEEN + shaped --> perfect gerund --> denotes a state or condition that no longer subsists
at the time of speaking ==> Clearly changes meaning --> wrong.
Hope it helps.
Please +1 KUDO if my post helps. Thank you.
"Designing cars consumes you; it has a hold on your spirit which is incredibly powerful. It's not something you can do part time, you have do it with all your heart and soul or you're going to get it wrong."
Chris Bangle - Former BMV Chief of Design.