Since the 1930 s aircraft manufacturers have tried to build : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# Since the 1930 s aircraft manufacturers have tried to build

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10 Jun 2012, 11:58
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651. Since the 1930’s aircraft manufacturers have tried to build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly that the air passing over them would not become turbulent.
(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and perfectly so
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19 Apr 2013, 10:56
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Hi rrkan, tricky question, duped me too.

C is out cos - shaped so smooth and perfect (here smooth and perfect are supposed to modify shaped - ed verb - thus we need adverb and an adjective, but if you see we have both as adjectives)

Choice B it is, since "...so smooth....so perfectly shaped" i notice how adverb perfectly is modifying shaped and adjective smooth is modifying adverb perfectly and also parallelism of so x so y is maintained
Hope this helps
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20 Apr 2013, 03:24
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nt2010 wrote:
Not sure why A is wrong. Unless comma has a different meaning..

Per my analysis shaped is a verb playing the modifier role and -ed modifier always modifies the closest noun - which is wings.

Smoothly and Perfectly are adverbs intended for shaped and also the idiom so and that are considered.

Any help from experts?

A is wrong because there is a dangling modifier which does not clearly state whether the aircraft is smooth and perfectly shaped or the wings.

if you want to modify the noun 'wings' , you will need to place a 'which' (non essential modifiers) after the comma.
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10 Jun 2012, 12:09
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Since the 1930’s aircraft manufacturers have tried to build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly that the air passing over them would not become turbulent.

(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and perfectly so

Hm. C is an easy elimination (shaped so smooth). I also think we can eliminate anything that describes its shaping as "smoothly". So we'll get rid of A and E. Now we're down to B and D. B has better structure. B it is.
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11 Jun 2012, 06:59
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I think we can eliminate A and D for the reason that it's not clear whether the ...shaped refers to the airplane or the wings
That should refer to something singular, so C is out.
E sounds verbose.
B it is.

Since the 1930’s aircraft manufacturers have tried to build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly that the air passing over them would not become turbulent.

(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and perfectly so

Hm. C is an easy elimination (shaped so smooth). I also think we can eliminate anything that describes its shaping as "smoothly". So we'll get rid of A and E. Now we're down to B and D. B has better structure. B it is.
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20 Apr 2013, 04:26
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skamal7 wrote:
hi lostthepie,
Can you please explain why ed modifer can't modify the near by noun wings and only which can perform that?

My 2 cents....

verb ed can modify nouns for sure. but if you notice carefully, here noun is "airplanes" "with....wings" is a prepositional phrase modifying "airplanes". Thus it creates an ambiguity as to what exactly verb ed is modifying

use of "that" will make the modifier an essential one, thus it will carefully modify the entire noun phrase "airplane .... wings" and not just airplanes or wings

hope this helps
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20 Apr 2013, 10:43
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skamal7 wrote:
+1 kudos mate for sharing the link.

But if you see those posts we see that verb-ed modifier is also a noun modifier for sure.SO all noun modifiers can modify the far away noun.So verb-ed modifiers can also modify far away noun i guess..please correct me if am wrong

Thats correct mate....Noun modifiers can modify any entity in a sentence
Verb ed modifier can modify far away nouns

Hope this helps

(waiting for your +1 kudos.....
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22 Aug 2013, 23:42
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blueseas wrote:
Ankit04041987 wrote:
651. Since the 1930’s aircraft manufacturers have tried to build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly that the air passing over them would not become turbulent.
(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and perfectly so

anyone having a good explanation for this??

This question solely carries its weight on meaning issue which then correlates to how we use the modifiers after grasping the meaning...The sentence tries to convey that the wings are smooth ( we know that in an airplane the wings should be smooth so that the friction is zero and the air thus can give the lift to make the plane airborne Bernoullie's principle ) and the wings are shaped perfectly. Thus the two modifiers here should act independently SMOOTH AS AN ADJECTIVE FOR WINGS and PERFECTLY AS AN ADVERB FOR SHAPED... so i think if u can reach to this subtle conclusion through analysis of the meaning u can easily eliminate all the options but B which keeps the meaning of the sentence perfectly intact ...

Hope it helps..
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18 Apr 2013, 06:29
Why is "C" an easy elimination. I did not understand
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19 Apr 2013, 11:41
Not sure why A is wrong. Unless comma has a different meaning..

Per my analysis shaped is a verb playing the modifier role and -ed modifier always modifies the closest noun - which is wings.

Smoothly and Perfectly are adverbs intended for shaped and also the idiom so and that are considered.

Any help from experts?
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20 Apr 2013, 03:52
hi lostthepie,
Can you please explain why ed modifer can't modify the near by noun wings and only which can perform that?
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20 Apr 2013, 04:55
So use of that and which is correct if we want to modify a noun with prepostional phrases and ver-ed modifier doesnt have this flexiblity ?am i right?
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20 Apr 2013, 05:03
skamal7 wrote:
So use of that and which is correct if we want to modify a noun with prepostional phrases and ver-ed modifier doesnt have this flexiblity ?am i right?

That is correct.

Follow the links below, very helpful in clearing the doubts in discussion here. It is better to understand the concept clearly than simply remember grammar rules

usage-of-that-doubt-150338.html

noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html

verb-ed-modifiers-vs-verb-ing-modifiers-125611.html

Hope I was of help

Cheers
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20 Apr 2013, 07:08
+1 kudos mate for sharing the link.

But if you see those posts we see that verb-ed modifier is also a noun modifier for sure.SO all noun modifiers can modify the far away noun.So verb-ed modifiers can also modify far away noun i guess..please correct me if am wrong
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08 May 2013, 05:51
Since the 1930’s aircraft manufacturers have tried to build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly that the air passing over them would not become turbulent.

(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and perfectly so

Notice that "and" is used,
So in B option ,Is it balancing properly "wings so smooth" with "so perfectly shaped" !!
I thought it is not balancing and rejected B at first !!
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22 Aug 2013, 00:20
Ankit04041987 wrote:
651. Since the 1930’s aircraft manufacturers have tried to build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly that the air passing over them would not become turbulent.
(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and perfectly so

anyone having a good explanation for this??

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21 Mar 2016, 01:57
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02 Apr 2016, 08:45
Ankit04041987 wrote:
651. Since the 1930’s aircraft manufacturers have tried to build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly that the air passing over them would not become turbulent.
(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and perfectly so

hard question focus on meaning analysis.

shaped smoothly is not logic in our world. shaped in good form is logic. shape can not be smooth
A is out.
in C, we need adverb to modify verb. smoothly and perfectly is correct. C is out
in D, smooth manner is not logic
in E. noun+having done dose not exist on gmat land.
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04 May 2016, 02:20
Ankit04041987 wrote:
651. Since the 1930’s aircraft manufacturers have tried to build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly that the air passing over them would not become turbulent.
(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and perfectly so

First to rule out "A" - "shaped" a past participle modifier which should modify the subject / object of the clause it modifies. here wings is neither the subject nor the object of the preceding clause because it is a prepositional phrase complementing "airplane" ---- airplane WITH frictionless wings.

So as per the meaning of this sentence "shaped can be written if it is not preceeded by a "," i.e. ".......airplanes with frictionless wings shaped so smoothly and perfectly that....." BUT in no answer choice we have this option.

Now this sentence needs an independent clause in underlined part because the non-underlined part starts with "since"

So we are left with option B as "having been ............" kind of terms are mostly not correct as per GMAT
Re: Since the 1930 s aircraft manufacturers have tried to build   [#permalink] 04 May 2016, 02:20

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