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Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged

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Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged [#permalink] New post 29 Mar 2014, 19:59
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Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were constructed in violation of the city's building code.

A)Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were
B)Some buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake last year had been
C)Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year have been
D)Last year the earthquake destroyed or heavly damaged some buildings that have been
E) Last year some of the buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earth quake had been.


My pick was B. But one question for everyone out there. What if we had one answer choice as -
"Some buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were"

I know that "had been" or Past Perfect is used to indicate the sequence of events. But, if the above was one of the answer choice - then do we pick "were" or "had been". The reasoning being - Past Perfect is only used when required. Since the building were already destroyed as mentioned in the original sentence, obviously they were constructed before their destruction. In that case - the sequence of events could be depicted even without using Past Perfect. Please let me know - Expert thoughts??

Thanks!

Last edited by carcass on 30 Mar 2014, 06:04, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the title and underlined the sentence
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Re: Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged [#permalink] New post 30 Mar 2014, 06:05
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Re: Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged [#permalink] New post 31 Mar 2014, 00:55
sa2222 wrote:
Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were constructed in violation of the city's building code.

A)Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were
B)Some buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake last year had been
C)Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year have been
D)Last year the earthquake destroyed or heavly damaged some buildings that have been
E) Last year some of the buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earth quake had been.


My pick was B. But one question for everyone out there. What if we had one answer choice as -
"Some buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were"

I know that "had been" or Past Perfect is used to indicate the sequence of events. But, if the above was one of the answer choice - then do we pick "were" or "had been". The reasoning being - Past Perfect is only used when required. Since the building were already destroyed as mentioned in the original sentence, obviously they were constructed before their destruction. In that case - the sequence of events could be depicted even without using Past Perfect. Please let me know - Expert thoughts??

Thanks!


Hi

Let me try to answer ur Question about Past perfect
Rules for Past Perfect:
Past perfect should be used only when these is sequence of 2 Events and the Earlier event should be expressed with past perfect tense and the Later event should be expressed with Simple past tense

And My answer would be D)

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Rrsnathan
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Re: Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged [#permalink] New post 30 Apr 2014, 08:28
Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were constructed in violation of the city's building code.

A)Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were
Error in meaning how can a building be destroyed and heavily damaged. Also sentence meaning say these buildings were constructed again in violation of city building code.
B)Some buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake last year had been
Correct: or is correct since we are talking about those building which where destroyed or heavily damaged and since it happened last year we need to address it with HAD been.
C)Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year have been
And conveys wrong meaning.
D)Last year the earthquake destroyed or heavly damaged some buildings that have been
wrong meaning, feels like these destroyed buildings are constructed now.
E) Last year some of the buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earth quake had been.
now building is no more the subject which is wrong.

Ans: B
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Re: Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged [#permalink] New post 01 May 2014, 03:17
D is the correct answer. Because with last year we use present perfect
What is the Only??
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Re: Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged [#permalink] New post 01 May 2014, 10:36
Expert's post
sa2222 wrote:
Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were constructed in violation of the city's building code.

A)Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were
B)Some buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake last year had been
C)Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year have been
D)Last year the earthquake destroyed or heavly damaged some buildings that have been
E) Last year some of the buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earth quake had been.


My pick was B. But one question for everyone out there. What if we had one answer choice as -
"Some buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were"

I know that "had been" or Past Perfect is used to indicate the sequence of events. But, if the above was one of the answer choice - then do we pick "were" or "had been". The reasoning being - Past Perfect is only used when required. Since the building were already destroyed as mentioned in the original sentence, obviously they were constructed before their destruction. In that case - the sequence of events could be depicted even without using Past Perfect. Please let me know - Expert thoughts??

Thanks!


Hi!

You are right that the past-perfect tense is used to clarify the sequence of events. However, that is only one of the two uses of this tense. The other use is to emphasize or impress on the sequence of events. When do we do so? We emphasize the chain of events if the earlier of the two actions has a bearing on the later action. The question at hand is a great example of both the accepted uses of past-perfect tense. Let’s look at choice B:

Some buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake last year had been constructed in violation of the city's building code.


The above sentence uses the past-perfect tense correctly. Not only does it conveys the sequence of event but also emphasizes the same. We need this emphasis because the earlier event has a direct bearing on the second event here. The damage to/destruction of the buildings is related to how they were constructed initially- hence, the use of past-perfect tense here. For this reason, I do not think the simple-past tense will be able to do justice to the intended meaning of the author here.

Let’s consider a choice that uses the simple-past tense in both the verbs. So, it would be something like this:

Some buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were constructed in violation of the city's building code.


Now, I agree that technically destruction of/ damage to something can happen only after that thing has been constructed. Despite this common understanding, the above sentence leaves open a very slight possibility to misinterpret the meaning of the sentence. It could mislead the reader in to thinking that the construction refers to the restoration work on the buildings. This possibility, no matter how minute, does not exist in the correct choice. Also, as mentioned earlier, the emphasis on the sequence of events is of paramount importance to the intended meaning of the author.

Hope the above discussion helps! :)

This question is from OG VR2. You can view our full length solutions to VR2 questions here : https://e-gmat.com/blogs/?cat=45.

Happy learning! :)

Regards,
Neeti.
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Re: Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged [#permalink] New post 01 May 2014, 20:57
sa2222 wrote:
Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were constructed in violation of the city's building code.

A)Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were
B)Some buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake last year had been
C)Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year have been
D)Last year the earthquake destroyed or heavly damaged some buildings that have been
E) Last year some of the buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earth quake had been.


My pick was B. But one question for everyone out there. What if we had one answer choice as -
"Some buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were"

I know that "had been" or Past Perfect is used to indicate the sequence of events. But, if the above was one of the answer choice - then do we pick "were" or "had been". The reasoning being - Past Perfect is only used when required. Since the building were already destroyed as mentioned in the original sentence, obviously they were constructed before their destruction. In that case - the sequence of events could be depicted even without using Past Perfect. Please let me know - Expert thoughts??

Thanks!


First, I've chosen A, but then I conceived meaning "destroyed and heavily damaged" is illogical, because if it is desroyed it is already heavily damaged and no use to put AND. So, first split is OR and AND. Eliminate A and C

B introduces OR but I think there is no need to introduce Past Perfect (we use it only if we want to accent on sequence of events)
D is with OR and make "building" (subject) closer to "have been" (verb), but I am not sure about Perfect
E is again with Past Perfect

The best is D
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Re: Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged [#permalink] New post 01 May 2014, 23:15
Expert's post
Temurkhon wrote:
sa2222 wrote:
Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were constructed in violation of the city's building code.

A)Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were
B)Some buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake last year had been
C)Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year have been
D)Last year the earthquake destroyed or heavly damaged some buildings that have been
E) Last year some of the buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earth quake had been.


My pick was B. But one question for everyone out there. What if we had one answer choice as -
"Some buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were"

I know that "had been" or Past Perfect is used to indicate the sequence of events. But, if the above was one of the answer choice - then do we pick "were" or "had been". The reasoning being - Past Perfect is only used when required. Since the building were already destroyed as mentioned in the original sentence, obviously they were constructed before their destruction. In that case - the sequence of events could be depicted even without using Past Perfect. Please let me know - Expert thoughts??

Thanks!


First, I've chosen A, but then I conceived meaning "destroyed and heavily damaged" is illogical, because if it is desroyed it is already heavily damaged and no use to put AND. So, first split is OR and AND. Eliminate A and C

B introduces OR but I think there is no need to introduce Past Perfect (we use it only if we want to accent on sequence of events)
D is with OR and make "building" (subject) closer to "have been" (verb), but I am not sure about Perfect
E is again with Past Perfect

The best is D


Hi,

I can see that a lot of you are confused with regards to the correct choice in this question. Accordingly, please refer to our full-length video-solution for this question here : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wJd-nh32yDY&feature=youtu.be

:)

Thanks,

Neeti.
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Re: Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged   [#permalink] 01 May 2014, 23:15
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