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Some GMATclubbers ask me how I' improved my RC skills and

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Some GMATclubbers ask me how I' improved my RC skills and [#permalink] New post 13 Jul 2008, 01:09
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Some GMATclubbers ask me how I' improved my RC skills and how to apply the technique that I described in my debrief. Vishy007 asked me to show how to use the technique for one of the passage in OG11th (page 384). I think it maybe useful for others. So the passage with my "thoughts":


------------------------------------------------
[Keep in mind question: structure, purpose and tone]

After evidence was obtained in the 1920's that the universe is expanding, it became reasonable to ask: will the universe continue to expand indefinitely, or is there enough mass in it for the mutual attraction of its constituents to bring this expansion to a halt? [Aha, universe is expanding and we do not know whether it expand infinitely or switch to compression. Aha, or empty space or big-bada-bum :)] It can be calculated that the critical density of matter needed to break the expansion and "close" the universe is equivalent to three hydrogen atoms per cubic meter. [critical point: 3 H atoms per 1m^3] But the density of the observable universe-luminous matter [we see less] in the form of galaxies-comes to only a fraction of this. If the expansion of the universe is to stop, there must be enough invisible matter in the universe to exceed the luminous matter in density by a factor of roughly 70. [Wow! 70! …invisible/visible.]

[What is the paragraph about? Our universe is expanding, there is critical mass density that needed to reverse that. Mass is visible and invisible. Invisible mass is not enough to collapse the universe. Hm…it is interesting, what a situation is in reality?] [Author tone: neutral] [purpose of paragraph: introduction to the problem, raising a question about expansion/compression, invisible mass will determine our answer]

Our contribution [aha! author contribute!] to the search for this "missing matter" has been to study the rotational velocity of galaxies at various distances from their center of rotation. [Oh, what does it mean? … Aha, it is like velocity of wind at various distances from center of tornado…I saw one small tornado in my life, and it was incredible…] It has been known for some time that outside the bright nucleus [galaxy has nucleus] of a typical spiral galaxy luminosity falls off rapidly with distance from the center [of course! the further from tornado, the less velocity of wind]. If luminosity were a true indicator of mass, most of the mass would be concentrated toward the center. [Be careful! Velocity determine mass distribution!] Outside the nucleus the rotational velocity would decrease geometrically with distance from the center, in conformity with Kepler's law. [Aha, if there is no invisible mass, we have Kepler’s law. Interesting, what did the author find?] Instead [Aha! I caught this “instead’] we have found that the rotational velocity in spiral galaxies either remains constant with increasing distance from the center or increases slightly. [Velocity does not decrease!] This unexpected result [Aha! “unexpected” – athour’s attitude!!! I caught it] indicates that the falloff in luminous mass with distance from the center is balanced by an increase in nonluminous mass. [Of course, there is invisible mass. But what about expansion/compression? Hey, author, does not forget about that!!!]

[What is the paragraph about? Author finding that there is invisible mass. Author studied distribution of velocity in galaxy] [Author tone: I’ve caught ‘unxpected’ attitude to results!!!] [purpose of paragraph: show author results that there is invisible mass but we still do not know answer to the main expansion/compression question.]

Our findings [Again finding] suggest that as much as 90 percent of the mass of the universe is not radiating at any wavelength with enough intensity to be detected on the Earth. [90% of mass is invisible in our universe… factor 70… it seems not enough… and… author studied galaxy but conclude about whole universe….it looks like generalization….but what is author’s answer?] Such dark matter could be in the form of extremely dim stars of low mass [small and dim stars..why small? because we perhaps can detect large dim stars], of large planets like Jupiter, or of black holes, either small or massive [because black hole is a hole :) It is invisible]. [invisible mass could be a few types….could be…the author suppose these types….read again to understand and memorize these types…attitude towards types of invisible mass] While it has not yet been determined whether this mass is sufficient to "close" the universe, [So, author still does not answer… odd author…] some physicists [some physics… who are they? Does author belong to them? I do not know...] consider it significant that estimates are converging on the critical value. [Wow, so somebody, maybe author also, maybe not, thinks that total mass is near critical value]

[What is the paragraph about? Author has found that invisible mass is 90% of total mass. Author proposes some types of invisible mass. Question is open. But some physics believes that we are near critical point] [Author tone: hypothetical towards types of invisible mass and neutral to conclusion about expansion/compression question] [purpose of paragraph: finishing description his/her results (90% invisible mass), hypothesis about types of invisible matter, statement that question is still open and some say that mass is near critical level. it sounds like conclusion….]

[Structure of the passage: 1st: introduction that expansion/compression means how much does invisible mass exist. 2nd: author results that invisible mass exists. 3rd: question still open but some believe that we are near critical point]
[Primary purpose: introduce problem, own finding and provide open conclusion]
[Tone: unexpected results, hypothetical types of invisible matter and neutral]
[Important ideas: rotational velocity: constant instead of geometrical decrease. Invisible matter.]

Now, You can go to OG11th RC questions 111-116 and try to answer. I hope you will answer fast and without return to the passage.

------------------------------------------------

Please, post your results: is it work for you?
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Re: RC - my example of application "active" and Gin's techniques [#permalink] New post 13 Jul 2008, 10:51
Walker, i was following thread for Sc1000 question created by you, but it seems it is no more available. Can you post it again it was great help to all members.
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Re: RC - my example of application "active" and Gin's techniques [#permalink] New post 13 Jul 2008, 13:50
walker wrote:
Some GMATclubbers ask me how I' improved my RC skills and how to apply the technique that I described in my debrief. Vishy007 asked me to show how to use the technique for one of the passage in OG11th (page 384). I think it maybe useful for others. So the passage with my "thoughts":


------------------------------------------------
[Keep in mind question: structure, purpose and tone]

After evidence was obtained in the 1920's that the universe is expanding, it became reasonable to ask: will the universe continue to expand indefinitely, or is there enough mass in it for the mutual attraction of its constituents to bring this expansion to a halt? [Aha, universe is expanding and we do not know whether it expand infinitely or switch to compression. Aha, or empty space or big-bada-bum :)] It can be calculated that the critical density of matter needed to break the expansion and "close" the universe is equivalent to three hydrogen atoms per cubic meter. [critical point: 3 H atoms per 1m^3] But the density of the observable universe-luminous matter [we see less] in the form of galaxies-comes to only a fraction of this. If the expansion of the universe is to stop, there must be enough invisible matter in the universe to exceed the luminous matter in density by a factor of roughly 70. [Wow! 70! …invisible/visible.]

[What is the paragraph about? Our universe is expanding, there is critical mass density that needed to reverse that. Mass is visible and invisible. Invisible mass is not enough to collapse the universe. Hm…it is interesting, what a situation is in reality?] [Author tone: neutral] [purpose of paragraph: introduction to the problem, raising a question about expansion/compression, invisible mass will determine our answer]

Our contribution [aha! author contribute!] to the search for this "missing matter" has been to study the rotational velocity of galaxies at various distances from their center of rotation. [Oh, what does it mean? … Aha, it is like velocity of wind at various distances from center of tornado…I saw one small tornado in my life, and it was incredible…] It has been known for some time that outside the bright nucleus [galaxy has nucleus] of a typical spiral galaxy luminosity falls off rapidly with distance from the center [of course! the further from tornado, the less velocity of wind]. If luminosity were a true indicator of mass, most of the mass would be concentrated toward the center. [Be careful! Velocity determine mass distribution!] Outside the nucleus the rotational velocity would decrease geometrically with distance from the center, in conformity with Kepler's law. [Aha, if there is no invisible mass, we have Kepler’s law. Interesting, what did the author find?] Instead [Aha! I caught this “instead’] we have found that the rotational velocity in spiral galaxies either remains constant with increasing distance from the center or increases slightly. [Velocity does not decrease!] This unexpected result [Aha! “unexpected” – athour’s attitude!!! I caught it] indicates that the falloff in luminous mass with distance from the center is balanced by an increase in nonluminous mass. [Of course, there is invisible mass. But what about expansion/compression? Hey, author, does not forget about that!!!]

[What is the paragraph about? Author finding that there is invisible mass. Author studied distribution of velocity in galaxy] [Author tone: I’ve caught ‘unxpected’ attitude to results!!!] [purpose of paragraph: show author results that there is invisible mass but we still do not know answer to the main expansion/compression question.]

Our findings [Again finding] suggest that as much as 90 percent of the mass of the universe is not radiating at any wavelength with enough intensity to be detected on the Earth. [90% of mass is invisible in our universe… factor 70… it seems not enough… and… author studied galaxy but conclude about whole universe….it looks like generalization….but what is author’s answer?] Such dark matter could be in the form of extremely dim stars of low mass [small and dim stars..why small? because we perhaps can detect large dim stars], of large planets like Jupiter, or of black holes, either small or massive [because black hole is a hole :) It is invisible]. [invisible mass could be a few types….could be…the author suppose these types….read again to understand and memorize these types…attitude towards types of invisible mass] While it has not yet been determined whether this mass is sufficient to "close" the universe, [So, author still does not answer… odd author…] some physicists [some physics… who are they? Does author belong to them? I do not know...] consider it significant that estimates are converging on the critical value. [Wow, so somebody, maybe author also, maybe not, thinks that total mass is near critical value]

[What is the paragraph about? Author has found that invisible mass is 90% of total mass. Author proposes some types of invisible mass. Question is open. But some physics believes that we are near critical point] [Author tone: hypothetical towards types of invisible mass and neutral to conclusion about expansion/compression question] [purpose of paragraph: finishing description his/her results (90% invisible mass), hypothesis about types of invisible matter, statement that question is still open and some say that mass is near critical level. it sounds like conclusion….]

[Structure of the passage: 1st: introduction that expansion/compression means how much does invisible mass exist. 2nd: author results that invisible mass exists. 3rd: question still open but some believe that we are near critical point]
[Primary purpose: introduce problem, own finding and provide open conclusion]
[Tone: unexpected results, hypothetical types of invisible matter and neutral]
[Important ideas: rotational velocity: constant instead of geometrical decrease. Invisible matter.]

Now, You can go to OG11th RC questions 111-116 and try to answer. I hope you will answer fast and without return to the passage.

------------------------------------------------

Please, post your results: is it work for you?


Walker, I have a few related questions:
1.Do you take notes as you read the passage.? Notes as in write the topic, tone purpose on a paper.
2. How much time do you spend to read the passage?
3.How much time do you take to answer each question on the RC?

Thanks.
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Re: RC - my example of application "active" and Gin's techniques [#permalink] New post 13 Jul 2008, 20:58
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goalsnr wrote:
Walker, I have a few related questions:
1.Do you take notes as you read the passage.? Notes as in write the topic, tone purpose on a paper.
2. How much time do you spend to read the passage?
3.How much time do you take to answer each question on the RC?

Thanks.


1. No.
2. ~6min
3. ~20-30sec
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Re: RC - my example of application "active" and Gin's techniques [#permalink] New post 14 Jul 2008, 06:09
walker wrote:
goalsnr wrote:
Walker, I have a few related questions:
1.Do you take notes as you read the passage.? Notes as in write the topic, tone purpose on a paper.
2. How much time do you spend to read the passage?
3.How much time do you take to answer each question on the RC?

Thanks.


1. No.
2. ~6min
3. ~20-30sec


Thank you . Iam still struglling with RC and will give this method a shot.
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Re: RC - my example of application "active" and Gin's techniques [#permalink] New post 14 Jul 2008, 09:43
Thanks Walker. These tips and your timings per passage & question can be made as benchmarks for rest of us to follow.

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Re: RC - my example of application "active" and Gin's techniques [#permalink] New post 02 Aug 2008, 17:34
Good stuff walker, I will try your approach!
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Re: Some GMATclubbers ask me how I' improved my RC skills and [#permalink] New post 02 Jul 2014, 06:04
walker wrote:
Some GMATclubbers ask me how I' improved my RC skills and how to apply the technique that I described in my debrief. Vishy007 asked me to show how to use the technique for one of the passage in OG11th (page 384). I think it maybe useful for others. So the passage with my "thoughts":


------------------------------------------------
[Keep in mind question: structure, purpose and tone]

After evidence was obtained in the 1920's that the universe is expanding, it became reasonable to ask: will the universe continue to expand indefinitely, or is there enough mass in it for the mutual attraction of its constituents to bring this expansion to a halt? [Aha, universe is expanding and we do not know whether it expand infinitely or switch to compression. Aha, or empty space or big-bada-bum :)] It can be calculated that the critical density of matter needed to break the expansion and "close" the universe is equivalent to three hydrogen atoms per cubic meter. [critical point: 3 H atoms per 1m^3] But the density of the observable universe-luminous matter [we see less] in the form of galaxies-comes to only a fraction of this. If the expansion of the universe is to stop, there must be enough invisible matter in the universe to exceed the luminous matter in density by a factor of roughly 70. [Wow! 70! …invisible/visible.]

[What is the paragraph about? Our universe is expanding, there is critical mass density that needed to reverse that. Mass is visible and invisible. Invisible mass is not enough to collapse the universe. Hm…it is interesting, what a situation is in reality?] [Author tone: neutral] [purpose of paragraph: introduction to the problem, raising a question about expansion/compression, invisible mass will determine our answer]

Our contribution [aha! author contribute!] to the search for this "missing matter" has been to study the rotational velocity of galaxies at various distances from their center of rotation. [Oh, what does it mean? … Aha, it is like velocity of wind at various distances from center of tornado…I saw one small tornado in my life, and it was incredible…] It has been known for some time that outside the bright nucleus [galaxy has nucleus] of a typical spiral galaxy luminosity falls off rapidly with distance from the center [of course! the further from tornado, the less velocity of wind]. If luminosity were a true indicator of mass, most of the mass would be concentrated toward the center. [Be careful! Velocity determine mass distribution!] Outside the nucleus the rotational velocity would decrease geometrically with distance from the center, in conformity with Kepler's law. [Aha, if there is no invisible mass, we have Kepler’s law. Interesting, what did the author find?] Instead [Aha! I caught this “instead’] we have found that the rotational velocity in spiral galaxies either remains constant with increasing distance from the center or increases slightly. [Velocity does not decrease!] This unexpected result [Aha! “unexpected” – athour’s attitude!!! I caught it] indicates that the falloff in luminous mass with distance from the center is balanced by an increase in nonluminous mass. [Of course, there is invisible mass. But what about expansion/compression? Hey, author, does not forget about that!!!]

[What is the paragraph about? Author finding that there is invisible mass. Author studied distribution of velocity in galaxy] [Author tone: I’ve caught ‘unxpected’ attitude to results!!!] [purpose of paragraph: show author results that there is invisible mass but we still do not know answer to the main expansion/compression question.]

Our findings [Again finding] suggest that as much as 90 percent of the mass of the universe is not radiating at any wavelength with enough intensity to be detected on the Earth. [90% of mass is invisible in our universe… factor 70… it seems not enough… and… author studied galaxy but conclude about whole universe….it looks like generalization….but what is author’s answer?] Such dark matter could be in the form of extremely dim stars of low mass [small and dim stars..why small? because we perhaps can detect large dim stars], of large planets like Jupiter, or of black holes, either small or massive [because black hole is a hole :) It is invisible]. [invisible mass could be a few types….could be…the author suppose these types….read again to understand and memorize these types…attitude towards types of invisible mass] While it has not yet been determined whether this mass is sufficient to "close" the universe, [So, author still does not answer… odd author…] some physicists [some physics… who are they? Does author belong to them? I do not know...] consider it significant that estimates are converging on the critical value. [Wow, so somebody, maybe author also, maybe not, thinks that total mass is near critical value]

[What is the paragraph about? Author has found that invisible mass is 90% of total mass. Author proposes some types of invisible mass. Question is open. But some physics believes that we are near critical point] [Author tone: hypothetical towards types of invisible mass and neutral to conclusion about expansion/compression question] [purpose of paragraph: finishing description his/her results (90% invisible mass), hypothesis about types of invisible matter, statement that question is still open and some say that mass is near critical level. it sounds like conclusion….]

[Structure of the passage: 1st: introduction that expansion/compression means how much does invisible mass exist. 2nd: author results that invisible mass exists. 3rd: question still open but some believe that we are near critical point]
[Primary purpose: introduce problem, own finding and provide open conclusion]
[Tone: unexpected results, hypothetical types of invisible matter and neutral]
[Important ideas: rotational velocity: constant instead of geometrical decrease. Invisible matter.]

Now, You can go to OG11th RC questions 111-116 and try to answer. I hope you will answer fast and without return to the passage.

------------------------------------------------

Please, post your results: is it work for you?


Interesting point.

One interesting observation which I have to share is regarding the hype which was created in front of my by GMAT veteran friends. RC was almost always in every one list of biggest nightmares. However during practice of RC , I noticed some trends which are now giving me quite a decent amount of comfort level . Firstly , I have noticed that if the passage is difficult , the questions are normally easy and vice-versa. GMAT , probably tries to balance one's attention span with his comprehension level. So if one gets an obscure passage in his exam , take some solace. Who knows your associated questions might be easy. Secondly , after a decent amount of practice , I could make out as to what question GMAT might ask me during my first reading of the passage ( it does help that I have been a very voracious reader in my school days so I can read quite quickly)
Thirdly even during my day to day life when I read things like say newspaper , magazines I am reading as if I am tackling a RC comprehension i.e. explicitly focussing on the author's opinion , his tone , his PoV to name a few

I think the above change in thought process might make one like RC portions because to be very frank RC is one such component where the answer is there in front of you , you just have to mine it unlike any other portion of GMAT and this is coming from a Engineering background student with Maths background.


PS - In the above passage , some possible questions which could have been asked by GMAT are -
what is the tone of the author ?
what is he trying to imply with and this is coming from a Engineering background student with Maths background. ?
How can reading a newspaper/ magazine assist exam takers ?

Options could be something like
Tone is argumentative / supportive / factual / opinionated ......
Author is trying to prove the effectiveness of his point inspite of a fact contrary to popular perception / author is trying to give a reason which will support his point / author is trying to establish his superiority over other aspects of the exam .....


Hope this helps
Re: Some GMATclubbers ask me how I' improved my RC skills and   [#permalink] 02 Jul 2014, 06:04
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