Guys, there is a mistake in answers - google this phrase and you will find a Kaplan
post in beat the gmat blog,
the correct answer (shocker!) should be
Do you notice the next one here? “To permit” should be “permitting” in order to make it parallel with “ranking”. Thus, the sentence should read:
Some mathematicians argue that permitting candidates to win elections because they have won a plurality of votes is like ranking a student who earned three A’s and two F’s higher than one who got two A’s and three B’s.
So... either this question is experimental, or the author just made a typo in the answer choices