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Some modern anthropologists hold that biological evolution

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Some modern anthropologists hold that biological evolution [#permalink] New post 26 Mar 2013, 12:38
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Some modern anthropologists hold that biological evolution has shaped not only human morphology but also human behavior. The role those anthropologists ascribe to evolution is not of dictating the details of human behavior but one of imposing constraints— ways of feeling, thinking, and acting that “come naturally” in archetypal situations in any culture. Our
“frailties”—emotions and motives such as rage, fear, greed, gluttony, joy, lust, love—may be a very mixed assortment, but they share at least one immediate quality: we are, as we say, “in the grip” of them. And thus they give us our sense of constraints. Unhappily, some of those frailties—our need for ever increasing security among them—are presently
maladaptive. Yet beneath the overlay of cultural detail, they, too, are said to be biological in direction, and therefore as natural to us as are our appendixes. We would need to comprehend thoroughly their adaptive origins in order to understand how badly they guide us now. And we might then begin to resist their pressure.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to present
A. a position on the foundations of human behavior and on what those foundations imply
B. a theory outlining the parallel development of human morphology and of human behavior
C. a diagnostic test for separating biologically determined behavior patterns from culture-specific detail
D. a practical method for resisting the pressures of biologically determined drives
E. an overview of those human emotions and motives that impose constraints on human behavior
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


2. The author implies that control to any extent over the “frailties” that constrain our behavior is thought to presuppose
A. that those frailties are recognized as currently beneficial and adaptive
B. that there is little or no overlay of cultural detail that masks their true nature
C. that there are cultures in which those frailties do not “come naturally” and from which such control can be learned
D. a full understanding of why those frailties evolved and of how they function now
E. a thorough grasp of the principle that cultural detail in human behavior can differ arbitrarily from society to society
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


3. It can be inferred that in his discussion of maladaptive frailties the author assumes that
A. evolution does not favor the emergence of adaptive characteristics over the emergence of maladaptive ones
B. any structure or behavior not positively adaptive is regarded as transitory in evolutionary theory
C. maladaptive characteristics, once fixed, make the emergence of other maladaptive characteristics more likely
D. the designation of a characteristic as being maladaptive must always remain highly tentative
E. changes in the total human environment can outpace evolutionary change


[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


Hi
I have seen this RC passage in this forum as well but didn't find convincing explanation to any of the questions.
I request if experts could help me go through each question and help me understand it.
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Re: Very Tough RC to comprehend. Need Experts help [#permalink] New post 26 Mar 2013, 14:53
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Re: Very Tough RC to comprehend. Need Experts help [#permalink] New post 27 Mar 2013, 15:13
I picked B D A. Wonder which are the correct answers.
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Re: Very Tough RC to comprehend. Need Experts help [#permalink] New post 27 Mar 2013, 17:27
RC Passage is below:

Some modern anthropologists hold that biological
evolution has shaped not only human morphology but
also human behavior. The role those anthropologists
ascribe to evolution is not of dictating the details of
human behavior but one of imposing constraints—
ways of feeling, thinking, and acting that “come
naturally” in archetypal situations in any culture. Our
“frailties”—emotions and motives such as rage, fear,
greed, gluttony, joy, lust, love—may be a very mixed
assortment, but they share at least one immediate
quality: we are, as we say, “in the grip” of them. And
thus they give us our sense of constraints.
Unhappily, some of those frailties—our need for ever increasing
security among them—are presently
maladaptive. Yet beneath the overlay of cultural detail,
they, too, are said to be biological in direction, and
therefore as natural to us as are our appendixes. We
would need to comprehend thoroughly their adaptive
origins in order to understand how badly they guide us
now. And we might then begin to resist their pressure.


1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
present
A. a position on the foundations of human behavior -----> I found it imperfect
and on what those foundations imply
B. a theory outlining the parallel development of ----> not talked about human morphology
human morphology and of human behavior
C. a diagnostic test for separating biologically ---> out of context
determined behavior patterns from culture-specific
detail
D. a practical method for resisting the pressures of ----------> not talked
biologically determined drives
E. an overview of those human emotions and motives ----------> I think it should be the answer
that impose constraints on human behavior

2. The author implies that control to any extent
over the “frailties” that constrain our
behavior is thought to presuppose
A. that those frailties are recognized as currently
beneficial and adaptive
B. that there is little or no overlay of cultural detail
that masks their true nature
C. that there are cultures in which those frailties do
not “come naturally” and from which such control
can be learned
D. a full understanding of why those frailties evolved ------> ( We would need to comprehend thoroughly their adaptive
origins in order to understand how badly they guide us

now. And we might then begin to resist their pressure.
and of how they function now )
E. a thorough grasp of the principle that cultural
detail in human behavior can differ arbitrarily from
society to society

3. It can be inferred that in his discussion of
maladaptive frailties the author assumes
that
A. evolution does not favor the emergence of ---- > (some of those frailties—our need for ever increasing
security among them—are presently
maladaptive. Yet beneath the overlay of cultural detail,
they, too, are said to be biological in direction, and
therefore as natural to us as are our appendixes. We
would need to comprehend thoroughly their adaptive
origins in order to understand how badly they guide us
now.
adaptive characteristics over the emergence of
maladaptive ones
B. any structure or behavior not positively adaptive is
regarded as transitory in evolutionary theory
C. maladaptive characteristics, once fixed, make the
emergence of other maladaptive characteristics
more likely
D. the designation of a characteristic as being
maladaptive must always remain highly tentative
E. changes in the total human environment can
outpace evolutionary change

----------------------------------------------------
So my answers are EDA.
-------------------------------------
Please let me know if my answers are wrong / waiting for OA and OE
---------------------------------------------------
Kudos will help me to unlock GMAT club test .. you can help me in that ... ;) give a kudo :) is better idea to appreciate the effort :roll:
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Re: Some modern anthropologists hold that biological evolution [#permalink] New post 07 May 2013, 12:17
E, d, e

Struggling with rc :)
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Re: Some modern anthropologists hold that biological evolution [#permalink] New post 07 May 2013, 22:58
Hmm!!! not very confident....but pick A,D,D.
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Re: Some modern anthropologists hold that biological evolution [#permalink] New post 13 May 2013, 03:44
anukrati wrote:
Hi

I have seen this RC passage in this forum as well but didn't find convincing explanation to any of the questions.
I request if experts could help me go through each question and help me understand it.

RC Passage is below:

Some modern anthropologists hold that biological
evolution has shaped not only human morphology but
also human behavior. The role those anthropologists
ascribe to evolution is not of dictating the details of
human behavior but one of imposing constraints—
ways of feeling, thinking, and acting that “come
naturally” in archetypal situations in any culture. Our
“frailties”—emotions and motives such as rage, fear,
greed, gluttony, joy, lust, love—may be a very mixed
assortment, but they share at least one immediate
quality: we are, as we say, “in the grip” of them. And
thus they give us our sense of constraints.
Unhappily, some of those frailties—our need for ever increasing
security among them—are presently
maladaptive. Yet beneath the overlay of cultural detail,
they, too, are said to be biological in direction, and
therefore as natural to us as are our appendixes. We
would need to comprehend thoroughly their adaptive
origins in order to understand how badly they guide us
now. And we might then begin to resist their pressure.


1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
present
A. a position on the foundations of human behavior
and on what those foundations imply
B. a theory outlining the parallel development of
human morphology and of human behavior
C. a diagnostic test for separating biologically
determined behavior patterns from culture-specific
detail
D. a practical method for resisting the pressures of
biologically determined drives
E. an overview of those human emotions and motives
that impose constraints on human behavior

2. The author implies that control to any extent
over the “frailties” that constrain our
behavior is thought to presuppose
A. that those frailties are recognized as currently
beneficial and adaptive
B. that there is little or no overlay of cultural detail
that masks their true nature
C. that there are cultures in which those frailties do
not “come naturally” and from which such control
can be learned
D. a full understanding of why those frailties evolved
and of how they function now
E. a thorough grasp of the principle that cultural
detail in human behavior can differ arbitrarily from
society to society

3. It can be inferred that in his discussion of
maladaptive frailties the author assumes
that
A. evolution does not favor the emergence of
adaptive characteristics over the emergence of
maladaptive ones
B. any structure or behavior not positively adaptive is
regarded as transitory in evolutionary theory
C. maladaptive characteristics, once fixed, make the
emergence of other maladaptive characteristics
more likely
D. the designation of a characteristic as being
maladaptive must always remain highly tentative
E. changes in the total human environment can
outpace evolutionary change




PLEASE PROVIDE OA OE

my pick: E D A
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Re: Some modern anthropologists hold that biological evolution [#permalink] New post 31 May 2013, 10:31
very tough RC, could not grasp the information. My take are:
B
D
A
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Re: Some modern anthropologists hold that biological evolution [#permalink] New post 15 Jun 2013, 05:24
Crazzy passage.. of what i could understand my pick is ACA. Even now i dont know what the passage tried to convey! took a net of 8 mins.
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Re: Some modern anthropologists hold that biological evolution [#permalink] New post 15 Jun 2013, 05:26
Also I dont think I will be able to justify my answers! Await the OA +OE
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Re: Some modern anthropologists hold that biological evolution [#permalink] New post 16 Jun 2013, 01:57
Science passages are my forte, but this one stumped me hands down. :shock: This one seriously becomes my benchmark for tough passages. :idea:
My take A,D,A.

OA plz?
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Re: Some modern anthropologists hold that biological evolution [#permalink] New post 16 Jun 2013, 21:00
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Paraphrase:
Some modern anthropologists say biological evolution has shaped both morphology and human behavior. According to them evolution controls human behavior by restricting, not by dictating, human behavior. Restriction is done by controlling ways of feeling, thinking and acting - these are typical to any culture. Our(Human) weaknesses (emotions and motives such as rage, fear etc) may be unique in their own way, but still they share a common character. i.e Humans are controlled by these weakness(frailties).

Unfortunately, some of these weaknesses (frailties) are presently out of order (maladaptive = wrongly configured). These weaknesses may seem to be determined by culture,but biology(evolution) plays a great role as well. We have to completely understand how these weaknesses originated, then only we can understand how they restrict us. And if we understand how they restrict us, we might get out of their restriction.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to present
A. a position on the foundations of human behavior and on what those foundations imply
Correct: The passage first says what position the anthropologists hold(evolution-human behaviour relationship), then say what we get of this position(we can get out of maladaptive behavior)
B. a theory outlining the parallel development of human morphology and of human behavior
Incorrect: The passage just mentions evolution shapes both morphology and human behavior. It never draws parallel. All the description is about human behaviour only.
C. a diagnostic test for separating biologically determined behavior patterns from culture-specific detail
Incorrect: No test is mentioned. The passage just says, behavior patterns are influenced by both culture(superficially) and biologically(may be actually). But never tries to separate them.
D. a practical method for resisting the pressures of biologically determined drives
Incorrect: No method is suggested. The second paragraph just mention, if we understand origin of biologically determined drives, we may someday control it. It is a theoretical possibility or unproven hypothesis, not a certain practical method.
E. an overview of those human emotions and motives that impose constraints on human behavior
Incorrect: Human emotions and motives do not impose constraints on human behavior. But evolution does. No overview is provided about emotions and motives, they are just mentioned. Paragraph is all about how evolution shapes human behavior and emotions and motives just come within the scope.


2. The author implies that control to any extent over the “frailties” that constrain our behavior is thought to presuppose

A. that those frailties are recognized as currently beneficial and adaptive
Incorrect: Some of them are maladaptive.
B. that there is little or no overlay of cultural detail that masks their true nature
Incorrect: Too negative, the author says frailties are masked by culture. ( beneath the overlay of cultural detail)
C. that there are cultures in which those frailties do not “come naturally” and from which such control can be learned
Incorrect: Author never says control can be learned. The passage mentions frailties are typical to any culture and we need to find their origin, if we want to control them.
D. a full understanding of why those frailties evolved and of how they function now
Correct: This is what the author says in the last two lines. If frailties were not constraining human behavior, then we will get nothing by understanding the evolution of fralities and the conclusion of the passage becomes illogical.
E. a thorough grasp of the principle that cultural detail in human behavior can differ arbitrarily from society to society
Incorrect: As per the passage, culture superficially constrain frailty and culture differs from society to society. But nothing is mentioned in the passage about understanding of culture.

3. It can be inferred that in his discussion of maladaptive frailties the author assumes that
A. evolution does not favor the emergence of adaptive characteristics over the emergence of maladaptive ones
Correct: The author says " We would need to comprehend thoroughly their adaptive origin". Means maladaptive behaviour has adaptive origin. If it is other way arround (adaptive has maladaptive origin), then the author would be at wrong. This option eliminates reverse cause-effect relationship.
B. any structure or behavior not positively adaptive is regarded as transitory in evolutionary theory
Incorrect: Maladaptive behavior: transitory - yes. as per author we might one day change. But Evolutionary theory ? - No, if we can change, it would be in artificial ways, not natural evolution.
C. maladaptive characteristics, once fixed, make the emergence of other maladaptive characteristics more likely
Incorrect: No. Maladaptive behavior has adaptive origin.
D. the designation of a characteristic as being maladaptive must always remain highly tentative
Incorrect: No. Nothing is said about definition. We need to study orgin of current maladaptive behavior. If the behavior is not considered maladaptive, we can stop studying its origin. We need not fix the definition.
E. changes in the total human environment can outpace evolutionary change
Incorrect: Nothing is mentioned about priorities. Human environment(less specifically culture) may be only outer layer in behavior determinants, nut they needn't necessarily outpace evolution.
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Re: Some modern anthropologists hold that biological evolution   [#permalink] 16 Jun 2013, 21:00
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