Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth
in temporary employment that occurred in the United
states during the 1980’s to increased participation in
the workforce by certain groups, such as first-time or
(5) reentering workers, who supposedly prefer such arrange-
ments. However, statistical analyses reveal that demo-
graphic changes in the workforce did not correlate with
variations in the total number of temporary workers.
Instead, these analyses suggest that factors affecting.
(10) employers account for the rise in temporary employ-
ment. One factor is product demand: temporary
employment is favored by employers who are adapting
to fluctuating demand for products while at the same
time seeking to reduce overall labor costs. Another
(15) factor is labor’s reduced bargaining strength, which
allows employers more control over the terms of
employment. Given the analyses, which reveal that
growth in temporary employment now far exceeds the
level explainable by recent workforce entry rates of
(20) groups said to prefer temporary jobs, firms should be
discouraged from creating excessive numbers of tem-
porary positions. Government policymakers should
consider mandating benefit coverage for temporary
employees, promoting pay equity between temporary
(25) and permanent workers, assisting labor unions in orga-
nizing temporary workers, and encouraging firms to
assign temporary jobs primarily to employees who
explicitly indicate that preference.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) present the results of statistical analyses and propose
(B) explain a recent development and predict its
(C) identify the reasons for a trend and recommend
measures to address it.
(D) outline several theories about a phenomenon and
advocate one of them
(E) describe the potential consequences of implementing
a new policy and argue in favor of that policy.
2. According to the passage, which of the following is true
of the “factors affecting employers” that are mentioned
(A) Most experts cite them as having initiated the
growth in temporary employment that occurred
during the 1980’s.
(B) They may account for the increase in the total
number of temporary workers during the 1980’s.
(C) They were less important than demographic change
in accounting for the increase of temporary
employment during the 1980’s.
(D) They included a sharp increase in the cost of labor
during the 1980’s.
(E) They are more difficult to account for than at other
factors involved in the growth of temporary
employment during the 1980’s.
3. The passage suggests which of the following about the
use of temporary employment by firms during the
(A) It enabled firms to deal with fluctuating product
demand far more efficiently than they before the
(B) It increased as a result of increased participation in
the workforce by certain demograp groups.
(C) It was discouraged by government-mandated
(D) It was a response to preferences indicated by certain
employees for more flexible working arrangements.
(E) It increased partly as a result of workers’ reduced
ability to control the terms of their employment.
4. The passage suggests which of the following about the
workers who took temporary jobs during the 1980’s?
(A) Their jobs frequently led to permanent positions
(B) They constituted a less demographically diverse
group than has been suggested.
(C) They were occasionally involved in actions
organized by labor unions.
(D) Their pay declined during the decade in comparison
with the pay of permanent employees.
(E) They did not necessarily prefer temporary
employment to permanent employment.
5. The first sentence in the passage suggests that the
observers mentioned in line 1 would be most likely to
predict which of the following?
(A) That the number of new temporary positions would
decline as fewer workers who preferred temporary
employment entered the workforce.
(B) That the total number of temporary positions would
increase as fewer workers were able to find
(C) That employers would have less control over the
terms of workers’ employment as workers
increased their bargaining strength.
(D) That more workers would be hired for temporary
positions as product demand increased.
(E) That the number of workers taking temporary
positions would increase as more workers in any
given demographic group entered the workforce.
6. In the context of the passage, the word “excessive” (line
21) most closely corresponds to which of the
(A) Far more than can be justified by worker
(B) Far more than can be explained by fluctuations in
(C) Far more than can be beneficial to the success of the
(D) Far more than can be accounted for by an expanding
(E) Far more than can be attributed to increases in the
total number of people in the workforce.
7. The passage mentions each of the following as an
appropriate kind of governmental action EXCEPT
(A) getting firms to offer temporary employment
primarily to a certain group of people.
(B) encouraging equitable pay for temporary and
(C) facilitating the organization of temporary workers by
(D) establishing guidelines on the proportion of
temporary workers that firms should employ
(E) ensuring that temporary workers obtain benefits
from their employers.
OA shall posted later..Please give explanations with your answer..
1 - C
Main point question
Main point is - Author first discusses a trend and reasons of temporary employment and finally suggests some measures to control temporary employment.
2 - B
In line no 10-12 "suggest that factors affecting employers account for the rise in temporary employment."
3 - E
In line no 16 - "labor’s reduced bargaining strength"
4 - E
Line no 17 - "Given the analyses, which reveal that growth in temporary employment now far exceeds the level explainable by recent workforce entry rates of groups said to prefer temporary jobs, firms should be discouraged from creating excessive numbers of temporary positions"
5 - A
"Some analysts believed that worker chose temporary jobs voluntarily"
Hence if there are less temporary workers would decline if the workers are unwilling to work.
Line no. 17 - "Given the analyses, which reveal that growth in temporary employment now far exceeds the level explainable by recent workforce <b>entry rates of groups said to prefer temporary jobs</b>, firms should be discouraged from creating excessive numbers of temporary positions."
7 - D
Clearly D is not stated in the last sentence of the passage.
Thanks and Regards,