A The author uses statistical analyses as the
basis of an explanation, but the analyses act
only as support for the larger purpose of
explaining a trend; no further studies are
B The author explores possible reasons for a
recent development but recommends ways to
curb or change that development; the author
does not predict the consequences if the
situation is left unchanged or the
recommendations unmet.C Correct. The author examines possible
reasons for the rise in temporary
employment and makes specific
recommendations to change the current
D The use of the phrase several theories is
enough to make this inaccurate. Two types
of explanation are suggested: employee
preference or employer self-interest.
E The author makes recommendations but
provides no arguments in support of those
recommendations—merely suggesting that
they are aimed at discouraging employers
from creating too many temporary positions.
The correct answer is C.Q:2
This question is based on information explicitly
stated in lines 10-12. The statistical analyses
suggest that factors affecting employers account for the
rise in temporary employment.
A Some observers attribute the rise to the
composition of the workforce; the passage
does not identify what most experts believe.B Correct. The factors affecting employers
may explain the rise in temporary
C The passage suggests that these factors were
more important than demographic changes
in explaining the rise.
D Although there is some suggestion in lines
15-16 that employers at some point
experienced difficulty from the cost of labor,
the passage does not suggest that a sharp
increase in that cost occurred in the 1980s—
and even suggests that labor costs may have
decreased because of labor's reduced
E The issue of how to account for those factors
(i.e., explain why they occurred) is not raised
in the passage—so the issue of whether
those factors are more difficult to account
for than other factors is not raised.
The correct answer is B.Q:3
Since the word suggests is used in the question, the
answer is probably not directly stated in the
passage and therefore has to be inferred. The
author believes that the rise in temporary
employment during the 1980s can be explained
by two factors affecting employers: product
demand and labors reduced bargaining strength.
Temporary employment allows employers to
adapt their workforce to the fluctuating demand
for their product. At this time, labors reduced
bargaining strength left employers, not workers, in
greater control of the terms of employment.
A This goes too far beyond the information
provided in the passage. The passage neither
says nor implies anything about efficiency
levels before the 1980s.
B The author says that demographic changes in
the workforce did not correlate with variations
in the total number of temporary workers,
ruling out this explanation.
C In 1992, the author recommended
government-mandated policies because they
did not exist.
D The author says that growth in temporary
employment now far exceeds the level
explainable by... groups said to prefer
temporaryjobs.E Correct. Labor's reduced bargaining power
resulted in employers' increased control over
the terms of employment.
The question's use of the word suggests indicates
that the answer is probably not directly stated in
the passage. The author says that the rise in
temporary employment nowfar exceeds the level
explainable by recent workforce entry rates of groups
said to prefer temporaryjobs. Thus, the number of
workers employed on a temporary basis is far
greater than the number of workers who actually
do prefer temporary employment.
A No evidence is presented that temporary
jobs led to permanent positions.
B The passage grants that there was increased
participation in the workforce by certain groups,
such asfirst-time or reentering workers. This
suggests more rather than less demographic
C The role of temporary workers in labor
unions is not discussed.
D The passage does suggest that the pay of
temporary workers is less than that of
permanent workers, but not that the pay of
temporary workers declined.
E Correct. The passage indicates that the
number of workers in temporary jobs was
higher than the number of workers who
stated a preference for temporary work.
The correct answer is E.Q:6
In its context in this passage, the word excessive
indicates a value-judgment by the author. The
author recommends that firms be discouragedfrom
creating excessive numbers of temporary positions on
the basis of the statistical analyses, which show
that the rise in temporary employment nowfar
exceeds the level explainable by recent workforce entry
rates of groups said to prefer temporary jobs. In the
context of lines 24—31, it is clear that the author
believes that the large expansion in temporary
employment exclusively serves employer interests
at the expense of employee interests (including
their preferences), and \s\ for that reason,
excessive.A Correct. An expansion of temporary
employment that serves employer interests
more than it serves employee interests (such
as preferences) is considered by the author to
B It is not because the expansion in temporary
employment allows employers to respond to
fluctuations in product demand that the
author regards the expansion as excessive.
C The relation of temporary employment to
the success of firms is not discussed.
D The relation of temporary employment to an
expanding economy is not discussed.
E The author does not consider the issue of
overall increases in the workforce as a whole,
only the issue of increases in temporary
The correct answer is A.
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