The crucial difference between A and B is that A mentions projecting future trends, while B is about fitting in a pattern of observed data.
I generally find that for CR questions, it helps me to turn them into "equations" so I can just pull out the arguments without getting caught up in wording. The notation is up to you (arrows, math symbols, logic symbols, etc.)-- whatever helps you understand how the facts work together will work:
Traditional methods: predicts humans = 130+
EVT: predicts humans = 113-124
To date: humans != 124+
Every part of answer A matches with a piece of information given in the stem "EVT is, in general, a more reliable method for projecting future trends ("predict", humans = 113-124) based on past observations (humans != 124+) than are traditional statistical methods (predicts humans = 130+)."
Answer B ("EVT fits the data about the highest observed human life spans more closely than do traditional statistical methods.) is incorrect mainly because of the phrase "fits the data". The curves "analyze empirical data on human longevity [to] predict...", so they are creating predictions and new curves based on data (data --> curves) , not fitting existing curves to data (curves --> data). It's slightly out of scope.
Hope that helps, let me know if you have any questions!
Magoosh Test Prep