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# Source: Friend A recent study has concluded that, contrary

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Source: Friend A recent study has concluded that, contrary [#permalink]

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10 May 2011, 00:57
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Source: Friend

A recent study has concluded that, contrary to the claim of those trying to ban cigarette advertisements altogether, cigarette ads placed on bill boards and in magazines have little to no effect on the smoking habits of the smokers who views the ads. The study, which surveyed more than 20,000 smokers and solicited their reasons for continuing to smoke, found that practically no one in the survey felt that these advertisements influenced their decision to smoke.

The study's conclusion is based upon which of the following assumptions.

a) people do not switch cigarette brands based on their exposure to cigarette ads on bill boards and in magazines.

b) Cigarette ads on bill boards and in magazines do not encourage non smokers to take up the habit.

c) Banning cigarette ads altogether will encourage people to give up smoking

d) people are consciously aware of all reasons they choose to smoke

e) People who decide to smoke do so for rational reasons.

OA is D....

My doubt: In assumption question we can go for external details, in this argument study was based on the smokers reaction with cigarette ads placed on billboards and magazines. This argument failed to include non smokers reaction to the ads.

So as in option B we may assume that these ads do not encourage non smokers to take up the habit.( Assumption Q)

But in option D, it can be inferred that smokers are aware of the reasons of their smoking.( inference Q)

So, why option D but not B is correct.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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10 May 2011, 01:24
To find the assumption behind the conclusion of the study, we need to understand the study first.
Who was studied? The study, which surveyed more than 20,000 smokers
What did the study do? and solicited their reasons for continuing to smoke
What did the study conclude? That the ads dont affect smoking behavior of [u]the smokers
who view these.
Why did the study conclude this? no one in the survey felt that these advertisements influenced their decision to smoke

okay now coming to the options:
A. Cigarette Brands? whoever talked of cigarette brands here? beyond the scope of the study at least in the context of present argument and conclusion. hence incorrect.
B. Non smokers: The study no where, to the best of our knowledge from the argumnet provided, talks of non smokers, It is a study which surveyed smokers, and talked of their reasons for continuting smoking. It didnt go to non smokers, so its conclusion is not even meant to apply to non smokers, why will it assume anything about non smokers then?
C. This is not an assumption, in fact it sounds like soething that the study would refute
D. Now the study bases its conclusion on what the smokers "felt". This means that the study assumes that the smokers know correctly and consciously what affects them or not, and thus this assumption option is correct. the study assumes that the smokers know for fact all the many fatcors which influence them, whihc might not be the case. the key word here is 'felt'
E. rationality of reasons is not of importance here, since neither smoking behavior nor advertismenets claim themselves to be on rational reasons in this argument's context.
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10 May 2011, 01:43
Between B and D,

B talks about non-smokers who are not being discussed here in the argument.If we negate this it doesn't really effect the conclusion about Smokers decision.

D If Smokers are not Consciously aware of their decision,there is a high probability that their decision might be effected by the Advertisements,subconsciously.

Thus D.
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10 May 2011, 01:53
amit2k9 wrote:
Between B and D,

B talks about non-smokers who are not being discussed here in the argument.If we negate this it doesn't really effect the conclusion about Smokers decision.

D If Smokers are not Consciously aware of their decision,there is a high probability that their decision might be effected by the Advertisements,subconsciously.

Thus D.

thanks to explain..i understood it now...
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10 May 2011, 01:54
vivesomnium wrote:
To find the assumption behind the conclusion of the study, we need to understand the study first.
Who was studied? The study, which surveyed more than 20,000 smokers
What did the study do? and solicited their reasons for continuing to smoke
What did the study conclude? That the ads dont affect smoking behavior of [u]the smokers
who view these.
Why did the study conclude this? no one in the survey felt that these advertisements influenced their decision to smoke

okay now coming to the options:
A. Cigarette Brands? whoever talked of cigarette brands here? beyond the scope of the study at least in the context of present argument and conclusion. hence incorrect.
B. Non smokers: The study no where, to the best of our knowledge from the argumnet provided, talks of non smokers, It is a study which surveyed smokers, and talked of their reasons for continuting smoking. It didnt go to non smokers, so its conclusion is not even meant to apply to non smokers, why will it assume anything about non smokers then?
C. This is not an assumption, in fact it sounds like soething that the study would refute
D. Now the study bases its conclusion on what the smokers "felt". This means that the study assumes that the smokers know correctly and consciously what affects them or not, and thus this assumption option is correct. the study assumes that the smokers know for fact all the many fatcors which influence them, whihc might not be the case. the key word here is 'felt'
E. rationality of reasons is not of importance here, since neither smoking behavior nor advertismenets claim themselves to be on rational reasons in this argument's context.

thanks to respond
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Re: Source: Friend A recent study has concluded that, contrary [#permalink]

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10 May 2015, 20:20
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Re: Source: Friend A recent study has concluded that, contrary [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2015, 06:40
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Re: Source: Friend A recent study has concluded that, contrary [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2015, 07:35
Good ques... Option D
B is incorrect as it talks about non smokers.
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Re: Source: Friend A recent study has concluded that, contrary [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2015, 02:25
this is a hard question because
normally, we have to try to criticize the problem. but normal criticization would be

the person asked are not prepresentative

but we can not find an answer choice matching the above criticization.

look at the argument from different perspective

persons asked say thay are not influenced

criticize: the person asked can not be concious
going to answer choices, D matches.

the hard question is the ones which stray away from the normal criticization we make. we can say thay difficulty level of a question depends on the distance between normal criticization we make and the true criticization in the OA.
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Re: Source: Friend A recent study has concluded that, contrary [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2015, 17:54
Main conclusion is that advertisements did not influenced smokers' decision to smoke.

a) people do not switch cigarette brands based on their exposure to cigarette ads on bill boards and in magazines.
---irrelevant as it talks about brands

b) Cigarette ads on bill boards and in magazines do not encourage non smokers to take up the habit.

c) Banning cigarette ads altogether will encourage people to give up smoking
---Negation does not support main conclusion.

d) people are consciously aware of all reasons they choose to smoke
---Correct answer as it only talks about smokers' decision and reasons to smoke.

e) People who decide to smoke do so for rational reasons.
---Main conclusion has nothing to do with rational reasons.
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Re: Source: Friend A recent study has concluded that, contrary [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2016, 12:24
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: Source: Friend A recent study has concluded that, contrary [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2016, 20:53
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joinashish wrote:
Source: Friend

A recent study has concluded that, contrary to the claim of those trying to ban cigarette advertisements altogether, cigarette ads placed on bill boards and in magazines have little to no effect on the smoking habits of the smokers who views the ads. The study, which surveyed more than 20,000 smokers and solicited their reasons for continuing to smoke, found that practically no one in the survey felt that these advertisements influenced their decision to smoke.

The study's conclusion is based upon which of the following assumptions.

a) people do not switch cigarette brands based on their exposure to cigarette ads on bill boards and in magazines.

b) Cigarette ads on bill boards and in magazines do not encourage non smokers to take up the habit.

c) Banning cigarette ads altogether will encourage people to give up smoking

d) people are consciously aware of all reasons they choose to smoke

e) People who decide to smoke do so for rational reasons.

OA is D....

My doubt: In assumption question we can go for external details, in this argument study was based on the smokers reaction with cigarette ads placed on billboards and magazines. This argument failed to include non smokers reaction to the ads.

So as in option B we may assume that these ads do not encourage non smokers to take up the habit.( Assumption Q)

But in option D, it can be inferred that smokers are aware of the reasons of their smoking.( inference Q)

So, why option D but not B is correct.

Here the conclusion talks about smokers. but answer choice B talks about non smokers hence B is wrong.
Now come to option D people are consciously aware of all reasons they choose to smoke
means those smoke who are conscious about all the effects.
So ad doesn't influence their behavior.
Negate it
People are not consciously aware of all the reasons they choose to smoke.
In that case smokers may get affeced by ads
Hence D
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Re: Source: Friend A recent study has concluded that, contrary   [#permalink] 24 Oct 2016, 20:53
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