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Women's grassroots activism and their vision of a new civic

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Women's grassroots activism and their vision of a new civic [#permalink] New post 28 Nov 2009, 19:21
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Women’s grassroots activism and their vision
of a new civic consciousness lay at the heart of
social reform in the United States throughout the
Progressive Era, the period between the depression
of 1893 and America’s entry into the Second

World War. Though largely disenfranchised except
for school elections, white middle-class women
reformers won a variety of victories, notably in
the improvement of working conditions, especially
for women and children. Ironically, though,

child labor legislation pitted women of different
classes against one another. To the reformers,
child labor and industrial home work were equally
inhumane practices that should be outlawed, but,
as a number of women historians have recently

observed, working-class mothers did not always
share this view. Given the precarious finances of
working-class families and the necessity of pooling
the wages of as many family members as possible,
working-class families viewed the passage and

enforcement of stringent child labor statutes as a
personal economic disaster and made strenuous
efforts to circumvent child labor laws. Yet
reformers rarely understood this resistance in terms
of the desperate economic situation of working-class

families, interpreting it instead as evidence
of poor parenting. This is not to dispute women
reformers’ perception of child labor as a terribly
exploitative practice, but their understanding of
child labor and their legislative solutions for ending

it failed to take account of the economic needs of
working-class families.



12. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) explain why women reformers of the Progressive Era failed to achieve their goals
(B) discuss the origins of child labor laws in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
(C) compare the living conditions of working-class and middle-class women in the Progressive Era
(D) discuss an oversight on the part of women reformers of the Progressive Era
(E) revise a traditional view of the role played by women reformers in enacting Progressive Era reforms

13. The view mentioned in line 17 of the passage refers to which of the following?
(A) Some working-class mothers’ resistance to the enforcement of child labor laws
(B) Reformers’ belief that child labor and industrial home work should be abolished
(C) Reformers’ opinions about how working-class families raised their children
(D) Certain women historians’ observation that there was a lack of consensus between women of different classes on the issue of child labor and industrial home work
(E) Working-class families’ fears about the adverse consequences that child labor laws would have on their ability to earn an adequate living

14. The author of the passage mentions the observations of women historians (lines 15–17) most probably in order to
(A) provide support for an assertion made in the preceding sentence (lines 10–12)
(B) raise a question that is answered in the last sentence of the passage (lines 27–32)
(C) introduce an opinion that challenges a statement made in the first sentence of the passage
(D) offer an alternative view to the one attributed in the passage to working-class mothers
(E) point out a contradiction inherent in the traditional view of child labor reform as it is presented in the passage

15. The passage suggests that which of the following was a reason for the difference of opinion between working-class mothers and women reformers on the issue of child labor?
(A) Reformers’ belief that industrial home work was preferable to child labor outside the home
(B) Reformers’ belief that child labor laws should pertain to working conditions but not to pay
(C) Working-class mothers’ resentment at reformers’ attempts to interfere with their parenting
(D) Working-class mothers’ belief that child labor was an inhumane practice
(E) Working-class families’ need for every employable member of their families to earn money

16. The author of the passage asserts which of the following about women reformers who tried to abolish child labor?
(A) They alienated working-class mothers by attempting to enlist them in agitating for progressive causes.
(B) They underestimated the prevalence of child labor among the working classes.
(C) They were correct in their conviction that child labor was deplorable but shortsighted about the impact of child labor legislation on working-class families.
(D) They were aggressive in their attempts to enforce child labor legislation, but were unable to prevent working-class families from circumventing them.
(E) They were prevented by their nearly total disenfranchisement from making significant progress in child labor reform.

17. According to the passage, one of the most striking achievements of white middle-class women reformers during the Progressive Era was
(A) gaining the right to vote in school elections
(B) mobilizing working-class women in the fight against child labor
(C) uniting women of different classes in grassroots activism
(D) improving the economic conditions of working class families
(E) improving women’s and children’s working conditions

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Difficulty: 600

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Re: RC of the Day [#permalink] New post 30 Nov 2009, 08:47
DBAECE

OA please
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Re: RC of the Day [#permalink] New post 30 Nov 2009, 09:01
12. D
13. B
14. A
15. E
16. C
17.E
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Re: RC of the Day [#permalink] New post 02 Dec 2009, 08:43
Such passages scare me , :x could not understand them at one shot , and even after reading and wasting much of my time in them i get most of my answers wrong. :(

My take :

AACEDA

Somebody explain the answers as well please.
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Re: RC of the Day [#permalink] New post 19 Dec 2009, 09:52
11mba you have already provided oas :)
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Re: RC of the Day [#permalink] New post 06 Dec 2010, 12:22
Guys please be kind enough to post OA's..it saves time ..

OA's are
12-D
13-B
14-A
15-E
16-C
17-E
Senior Manager
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Re: RC of the Day [#permalink] New post 10 Dec 2010, 07:55
I got DBAECE
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Thank you for your kudoses Everyone!!!


"It always seems impossible until its done."
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Re: RC of the Day [#permalink] New post 19 Dec 2010, 20:34
My ans are DBAEDE
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Re: RC of the Day [#permalink] New post 16 Jun 2011, 07:09
Question #13. I beg your pardon but "child labor and industrial home work were equally inhumane practices that should be outlawed" as according to the answers IS NOT the line #17 but just lines 13-14. Line 17 is "Given the precarious finances of
working-class families ...". So I've got E instead of B. Why I am wrong?
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Re: Women's grassroots activism and their vision of a new civic [#permalink] New post 17 Sep 2014, 10:39
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Re: Women's grassroots activism and their vision of a new civic   [#permalink] 17 Sep 2014, 10:39
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