[quote]Thanks...can you please suggest something for the assumption questions
i get them wrong most of the time
Well the problem is we try to pre-think/predict an assumption in most of the assumption questions and waste a lot of time doing so !
1. Look for new information / new words in conclusion. Try to link it to the main premise and fill in the logical GAP ! This helps a lot in narrowing down our pre-thinking.
2. Again, if you are not able to find a gap / weakness in author's reasoning ( how the author has arrived at the conclusion ) , LEARN NOT TO WASTE time on pre-thinking. In most of these cases , the correct answer choice might protect the argument from a potential weakness. How ? It states that something that hurts the argument cannot happen ! That is the correct assumption.
Consider this example :
I go to swim everyday. Swimming is a good exercise and increases one's strength. Thus, regular swimming improves my stamina !
Here the conclusion is " Regular swimming improves a stamina "
Stamina might be a new order but in premises it is mentioned that " swimming is a good exercise and increases one's strength" . So in premises already something related to stamina is discusses ( " increases one's strength " ).
Also we are unable to identify a gap quickly !
If there is a new word in conclusion that is not mentioned it supporting premises. There might be a relationship between that new word and supporting premises. Such a relationship could actually fill in the logical GAP !. So you can reduce time by pre-thinking about a possible relationship between new word in conclusion and the supporting premises. That would be a correct assumption.
But wait, In my above example that is not the case ! It seems a bit difficult to identify any gap and also there is no new element in conclusion that can help us in pre-thinking !
Here comes a different type of assumption.
An answer choice might state that " There are some affordable and clean swimming pools in vicinity "
Think of it for a moment, what happens if there are no swimming pools near my surrounding or if they are very expensive ! I may not go to swimming at all or I may go to expensive swimming clubs only once or twice a week. So, either way I am not swimming regularly. When I am not swimming regularly, How can i improve my stamina ! It hurts the argument. So the correct answer choice protects the argument from this weakness (It says there are several options for cheap swimming pools near by & hence i can go to swimming everyday ).
Such an assumption is called defender assumptions.
Defender assumptions are much harder to pre-think / predict. So understand the conclusion and facts that support it and scan answer choices to see If an answer choice is actually protecting the conclusion from a weakener ! Use negation test to confirm the answer. Just do not waste too much time / give up if you unable to predict an assumption ! Rather look for an defender assumption. Defender assumptions generally use negative elements such as "not" "no" or "none" ). Do not eliminate an answer choice because of its answer choice.
Hope this helps !