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??Students of United States history, seeking to identify the

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??Students of United States history, seeking to identify the [#permalink] New post 19 Apr 2009, 21:33
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  Students of United States history, seeking to identify the circumstances that encouraged the emergence of feminist movements, have thoroughly investigated the mid-nineteenth-century American economic and social conditions that affected the status of women. These historians, however, have analyzed less fully the development of specifically feminist ideas and activities during the same period. Furthermore, the ideological origins of feminism in the United States have been obscured because, even when historians did take into account those feminist ideas and activities occurring within the United States, they failed to recognize that feminism was then a truly international movement actually centered in Europe. American feminist activists who have been described as "solitary" and "individual theorists" were in reality connected to a movement―utopian socialism—which was already popularizing feminist ideas in Europe during the two decades that culminated in the first women's rights conference held at Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848. Thus, a complete understanding of the origins and development of nineteenth-century feminism in the United States requires that the geographical focus be widened to include Europe and that the detailed study already made of social conditions be expanded to include the ideological development of feminism.
  The earliest and most popular of the utopian socialists were the Saint-Simonians. The specifically feminist part of Saint-Simonianism has, however, been less studied than the group's contribution to early socialism. This is regrettable on two counts. By 1832 feminism was the central concern of Saint-Simonianism and entirely absorbed its adherents' energy; hence, by ignoring its feminism. European historians have misunderstood Saint-Simonianism. Moreover, since many feminist ideas can be traced to Saint-Simonianism, European historians' appreciation of later feminism in France and the United States remained limited.
Saint-Simon's followers, many of whom were women, based their feminism on an interpretation of his project to reorganize the globe by replacing brute force with the rule of spiritual powers. The new world order would be ruled together by a male, to represent reflection, and a female, to represent sentiment. This complementarity reflects the fact that, while the Saint-Simonians did not reject the belief that there were innate differences between men and women, they nevertheless foresaw an equally important social and political role for both sexes in their Utopia.
  Only a few Saint-Simonians opposed a definition of sexual equality based on gender distinction. This minority believed that individuals of both sexes were born similar in capacity and character, and they ascribed male-female differences to socialization and education. The envisioned result of both currents of thought, however, was that women would enter public life in the new age and that sexual equality would reward men as well as women with an improved way of life.


22. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the Seneca Falls conference on women's rights? 
  A It was primarily a product of nineteenth century Saint-Simonian feminist thought.
  B It was the work of American activists who were independent of feminists abroad.
  C It was the culminating achievement of the Utopian socialist movement.
  D It was a manifestation of an international movement for social change and feminism
E It was the final manifestation of the women's rights movement in the United States in the nineteenth century.

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Last edited by Caroline121 on 26 Apr 2009, 23:30, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Saint-Simonians [#permalink] New post 20 Apr 2009, 07:06
i would have gone for A.
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Re: Saint-Simonians [#permalink] New post 20 Apr 2009, 08:13
I would choose D. As
A- To strong.. passage says that Saint's group was the most popular but still to assume that conference was primarily product of his group is exaggeration.
B- definitely not.
C- Quite close..but closer read reveals that conference was rather efforts of american activities who in turn was inspired by European activities.
D- right..
E- Again too strong.. nowhere mentioned as conference was the final manifestation.

Let me know whats the OA and OE. This passage was really good, it took me almost 8 minutes to ans this question..
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Re: Saint-Simonians [#permalink] New post 21 Apr 2009, 20:53
D seems like the right answer
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Re: Saint-Simonians [#permalink] New post 26 Apr 2009, 23:43
D is the OA. Nonetheless, I have confused why C is not the correct option, since "American feminist activists who have been described as "solitary" and "individual theorists" were in reality connected to a movement―utopian socialism—which was already popularizing feminist ideas in Europe during the two decades that culminated in the first women's rights conference held at Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848."
The main clause is “American feminist activists were connected to a movement.”
which was already popularizing feminist ideas in Europe during the two decades” is a subordinate clause modifying “utopian socialism”. “that culminated in the first women's rights conference held at Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848” is another subordinate clause modifying “a movement”. The dash means that "a movement" indicates "utopian socialism".
Is my analysis correct?

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Three passions, simple but overwhelmingly strong, have governed my life: the longing for love, the search for knowledge, and unbearable pity for the suffering of mankind. ----Russell

Re: Saint-Simonians   [#permalink] 26 Apr 2009, 23:43
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