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Studies in restaurants show that the tips left by customers

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Studies in restaurants show that the tips left by customers [#permalink] New post 22 Dec 2009, 12:34
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Studies in restaurants show that the tips left by customers who pay their bill in cash tend to be larger when the
bill is presented on a tray that bears a credit-card logo. Consumer psychologists hypothesize that simply seeing
a credit-card logo makes many credit-card holders willing to spend more because it reminds them that their
spending power exceeds the cash they have immediately available.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the psychologists' interpretation of the studies?

(A) The effect noted in the studies is not limited to patrons who have credit cards.
(8) Patrons who are under financial pressure from their credit-card obligations tend to tip less when presented
with a restaurant bill on a tray with a credit-card logo than when the tray has no logo.
(C) In virtually all of the cases in the studies, the patrons who paid bills in cash did not possess credit cards.
(D) In general, restaurant patrons who pay their bills in cash leave larger tips than do those who pay by
credit card.
(E) The percentage of restaurant bills paid with a given brand of credit card increases when that credit card's
logo is displayed on the tray with which the bill is presented.

Pls help...total bouncer for me
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Re: Studies in restaurants [#permalink] New post 22 Dec 2009, 15:24
The conclusion is: Seeing a credit-card logo makes credit-card holders willing to spend more because they are reminded that they have the spending power to do so.

(A) If the effect is the same for credit-card & non credit-card holders, then the conclusion may not necessarily hold since the hypothesis is based only on credit-card holders.

(B) This is the correct answer because it's the closest to the conclusion. These credit-card holders spend less because they are reminded that they do not have the spending power when they see the credit-card logo on the tray. Using the same reasoning, credit-card holders spend more because they are reminded that they have the spending power when they see the credit-card logo, which is the conclusion.

Seeing this another way, the opposite of a strengthen-type question should weaken the conclusion. Looking at (B), if these credit-card holders who do not have the spending power DO NOT tip less when they see the credit-card logo, then that means they are not reminded of their spending power and there is no correlation between their spending power and the amount of tip they put down. This weakens the conclusion, which indicates the correlation between the two. The answer is (B).

(C) Just as in (A), non credit-card holders are out of scope. You are only dealing with credit-card holders. If you're dealing with patrons who don't have credit cards, then how are they reaching their conclusion based on credit-card holders? (C) is out.

(D) For this to strengthen the argument, you would have to assume that the restaurant patrons who pay their bills in cash are actually credit-card holders. If they weren't, then the conclusion wouldn't work and I think this would actually weaken the argument. Since you cannot assume that the patrons are credit-card holders, (D) would not work.

(E) This is out of scope, because you're not worried about how often a certain brand of credit-card is used, but how much more is spent because of the tray with the credit-card logo on it.
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Re: Studies in restaurants [#permalink] New post 23 Dec 2009, 01:40
yeah...now got it....great explanation man!!

well can you suggest some tips to improve CR?
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Re: Studies in restaurants [#permalink] New post 23 Dec 2009, 09:38
Is the OA B?
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Re: Studies in restaurants [#permalink] New post 23 Dec 2009, 11:14
yes it is...u did answered my 1st Q but what abt the 2nd one...:)
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Re: Studies in restaurants [#permalink] New post 23 Dec 2009, 16:45
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Regarding how you can improve CR, I can tell you what worked for me.

For most of the questions, the most important thing is knowing what the conclusion is. Then, depending on what type of question I have, I would approach it a certain way.

1) Strengthen type questions: Look for the answer choice that strengthens the conclusion and somehow relates to the premises. A lot of times, I'll come across choices that strengthen the conclusion, but aren't mentioned anywhere in the paragraph. This means that I'm bringing in my own assumptions and automatically I know that the answer choice is incorrect. If, going through the answers, I narrow it down to two, I look at the answer choices and ask myself if the opposite statements would overturn/weaken the conclusion. If the choice overturns/weakens the conclusion, it's the right answer.

2) Weaken type questions: Pretty much the same strategy as the Strengthen-type questions except that you're looking for the choice that weakens the conclusion or strengthens the opposite conclusion. With these types of questions, I like to quickly jot down the opposite conclusion and look at the choices that strengthen this. I see it better this way, but that's just my preference. Using the Opposite/Negation technique if you've narrowed it down to two and can't decide, the opposite answer choice statement should support the conclusion. Because it's a bit more tricky using the opposite/negation technique for weaken type questions, I mostly use it when I have narrowed it down to two.

3) Assumption questions: Once again, the answer choices should support the conclusion based on the premises. With Weaken-type questions, I don't like to use the Negation technique unless I've narrowed it down, but I feel it's something that you have to do for assumption questions, because if the assumption isn't there, then the conclusion doesn't hold. So for these questions, I'll go through each and see whether or not the opposite choice yields a valid conclusion or weakens it. If the opposite choice yields a valid conclusion, the answer is incorrect. The opposite choice should overturn the conclusion and that should be the answer. This means that the conclusion does not hold without this assumption, so the assumption must be there for the argument to work.

4) Inference type questions: I think, for the most part, that this is the question type that focuses more on the premises than the conclusion, so I make sure that I stick as closely as possible to what is being said in the paragraph and then pick the answer choice that most closely follows from that.

5) Main point questions: For questions that ask you what the main point is, just ask yourself what the conclusion is. This means that you pick the answer choice that concisely and appropriately summarizes the paragraph as a whole.

6) Paradox questions: I quickly jot down what the paradox is and look for the closest answer choice that explains it. This sounds really general, but the strategy is that simple. In the OG 12 guide, there is a question about how it was reported that apples contain a cancer-causing agent. People said that they would not change their buying habits, but the sale of apples still dropped. In this case, the paradox is same buying habits, but lower apple sales. You have to look for the choice that explains both. The answer was something about stores deciding not to carry apples. This explains the fact that people want to buy apples, but can't because stores decided to stop carrying them. Check out the question in the OG guide and you'll see.

7) Bold-faced questions: These are the questions that have two bold-faced sentences and you have to find out how they relate to the author's view, or conclusion, etc. From what I've read, a good strategy is to locate the conclusion and make a mental note of how each bold-faced statement relates to it, because the answer choices almost always mention the conclusion. Anyway, then you look at the first bold-faced sentence and the first part of the answer choice sentence and see if it's true or not. Then you do the same for the second bold-faced statement. This should help you narrow it down and find the answer.

8) Parallel reasoning questions: I don't really have a good strategy for this one. These are the type of questions that give a situation and ask you to pick the choice that most closely parallels it. I've seen people map out the situation with X & Ys. The situation will follow a pattern, for ex. if X then Y. Then you have to look at the choices and simplify to get this general pattern. I've seen atish do it on a few posts, so he would be a good resource.

One more thing to look out for is extreme words. I've read that extreme words (never, must, always, etc.) usually indicate an incorrect answer because if someone can find even a single loophole, then the answer can be incorrect. To avoid this, the GMAT prefers moderate words for their answer choices (some, most, almost, etc.). It gives them some wiggle room for their answers.

Critical Reasoning was one of the toughest sections for me, because I used to look at the answer choices and think that they all looked reasonable. I didn't know how to tackle them. I saw someone's post about Platinum GMAT which is a free site for GMAT-type questions and a tutorial (http://www.platinumgmat.com/) and checked it out. I went through each CR question and systematically approached them depending on what type of question it was and that really helped. These questions are a bit easier, but they helped me put my strategies into practice and I could see exactly what my way of thinking should be, what I should be looking out for, why the wrong choices were wrong, etc. I would strongly recommend going through them and focusing on your strategy of how to tackle them and analyze what is working for you and what isn't and how you're approaching each problem. After this, I started going through the OG 12 guide and reviewed the CR section and it was so much clearer. Personally, I went through the Manhattan CR guide and it's strategies are similar with a few exceptions. I think if you really take the time to practice doing questions a certain way, depending on what type of question it is, you don't need a special CR guide. After all that, just go through the CR questions on this site and you'll be fine.

I hope this helps.

Now I have to focus on Sentence Correction.
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Re: Studies in restaurants [#permalink] New post 24 Jan 2010, 19:35
this one should really be appreciated !!
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well I would not disturb you after the D-day ..so please !!!

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Re: Studies in restaurants [#permalink] New post 25 Jan 2010, 05:56
umangpatel03 wrote:
Regarding how you can improve CR, I can tell you what worked for me.

For most of the questions, the most important thing is knowing what the conclusion is. Then, depending on what type of question I have, I would approach it a certain way.

1) Strengthen type questions: Look for the answer choice that strengthens the conclusion and somehow relates to the premises. A lot of times, I'll come across choices that strengthen the conclusion, but aren't mentioned anywhere in the paragraph. This means that I'm bringing in my own assumptions and automatically I know that the answer choice is incorrect. If, going through the answers, I narrow it down to two, I look at the answer choices and ask myself if the opposite statements would overturn/weaken the conclusion. If the choice overturns/weakens the conclusion, it's the right answer.


Don't want to discourage the effort put by you... but this isnt correct! For strengthen questions, you can get the information from outside. Typically these questions have this as their stem questions - "If the following statements are true, which one of them would strengthen the author's claim"
Hence the liberty for you to consider anything from outside is granted. Hence saying that you cannot get anything from outside might not be the right thing to put across.

Having said, for Must be true or Main point CR questions - you should NOT get anything from outside. If you check the question of these types - it would typically state - what is the main point of the stem above or wat author states!

I would suggest Powerscore CR bible to referred for CRs... This is the best source for you to master the CR handling of all types.

As I said before... good job for the effort of explaining in detail... I haven't checked your entire post as I was a little held up...but I would urge you to please double check what you have stated as this might help or break someone's effort...!
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Re: Studies in restaurants [#permalink] New post 25 Jan 2010, 13:15
Jeetesh,

You're definitely right. When I wrote the post, I was thinking only about the questions that required you to stick to the passage, but I should have made that clear for your reasons. But yes, if you come across "If true" type wording, then you must consider that statement to be true and go from there.

I re-read my post and I think one clarification I need to make to be safe is the following:
For the Weaken-type questions in the second to last sentence, I say "...the opposite answer choice statement should support the conclusion." I think it might be safer to say "...the opposite answer choice statement should not weaken (meaning it will not weaken or actually may strengthen) the conclusion." The idea is that if you have a strengthen-type question, then an incorrect choice will be one where the statement AND the opposite statement could let the conclusion hold. For weaken-type questions, an incorrect choice will be one where the statement AND the opposite statement do not let the conclusion hold.

I apologize for any assumptions that I make in my post that I have not made clear. There is so much information and there are many strategies for the CR type that sometimes it's hard to see how other people may read and interpret the information. I certainly do not want to give anyone the wrong strategy or misinform anyone.

Please feel free to correct me or add to my post. If there are too many mistakes in my post and too many unstated assumptions, I will see if I can remove the post to avoid causing confusion.

Jeetesh--thanks for correcting my mistake. I appreciate it.
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Re: Studies in restaurants [#permalink] New post 25 Jan 2010, 13:46
umangpatel03 wrote:
Jeetesh,

You're definitely right. When I wrote the post, I was thinking only about the questions that required you to stick to the passage, but I should have made that clear for your reasons. But yes, if you come across "If true" type wording, then you must consider that statement to be true and go from there.

I re-read my post and I think one clarification I need to make to be safe is the following:
For the Weaken-type questions in the second to last sentence, I say "...the opposite answer choice statement should support the conclusion." I think it might be safer to say "...the opposite answer choice statement should not weaken (meaning it will not weaken or actually may strengthen) the conclusion." The idea is that if you have a strengthen-type question, then an incorrect choice will be one where the statement AND the opposite statement could let the conclusion hold. For weaken-type questions, an incorrect choice will be one where the statement AND the opposite statement do not let the conclusion hold.

I apologize for any assumptions that I make in my post that I have not made clear. There is so much information and there are many strategies for the CR type that sometimes it's hard to see how other people may read and interpret the information. I certainly do not want to give anyone the wrong strategy or misinform anyone.

Please feel free to correct me or add to my post. If there are too many mistakes in my post and too many unstated assumptions, I will see if I can remove the post to avoid causing confusion.

Jeetesh--thanks for correcting my mistake. I appreciate it.


First of all Umang... dont be sorry! U dont have to be! We all learn by mistakes and trust me I was struggling with CRs 3 weeks back and I still get them wrong... You can always submit such posts.. but be sure to back it with proper credits for a person to follow up unless you have reached a stage where you can take a stand. I have seen many Moderators do it but still they give you credible reference as they dont want their help to kill someone's effort due to a misunderstand or misinterpretation...
In case you have no reference, add in a comment for a Moderator to check! Atleast the new bee could judge it practically and not blindly follow it...!

Coming to your weaken question para:
"...the opposite answer choice statement should support the conclusion."

This gets tricky..as it depends how you define opposite..? The question might sound a bit ridiculous but its valid....
Wat would you choose opposite of sweet? Bitter? If you choose this... you might be correct in the real world but not in GMAT! Opposite of Sweet is Bitter but it is called POLAR Opposite! In GMAT we use something called as LOGICAL Opposites which are different. LOGICAL opposite of Sweet is .. NOT Sweet! :) Interesting isnt it...!
Another example is Logical opposite of 'Some' as in 'Some Students' would be 'None Students'. Logical Opposite of ALL would be NOT ALL...
If ALL = 100, NOT ALL = 0 to 99 (everything... but not 100 or Not ALL)

Hence for weaken questions .... I do NOT recommend this approach! Weaken questions can directly be attacked by weakening the conclusion, weaken the cause effect relation.... highlighting the wrong comparison etc....

Usually this approach of doing an LOGICAL OPPOSITE of the answers in followed for Assumption questions.
If you encounter the ASSUMPTION question, form the logical opposite of the answers. The answers which kills the question stem would be the answer! This is called the Negation Technique!

I can go on writing down on this and end up putting the entire Powerscore CR bible here and violate the Copyrights act! :lol: ... If u get a chance... read that book... it is quite helpful!
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Re: Studies in restaurants   [#permalink] 25 Jan 2010, 13:46
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