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Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong

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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong [#permalink] New post 16 Feb 2014, 12:03
skim wrote:
Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equater.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on




This is Q14 of the OG 12th ed. (Q9 of the OG 11th ed) However:

1. I don't understand the OE of option (C), in that "sighted is not a complete verb".

2. I don't understand the OE of the top paragraph which states "The adjective visible is a complement and is parallel to the past particle sighted"

Would appreciate any form of explanation. Thanks



Hi e-gmat,

Please can you answer my queries below regarding the above OG question.

1. When compared to sighted at equator, sighted on equator sounds good and I feel we must say sighted on equator and not sighted at equator as equator is not a place like an area in a city. Please can you let me now if my understanding above is correct and can I eliminate an option based solely on this one?

2. Consider the sentence, Sunspots appear on the surface of the sun as dark spots although never sighted at equator. Can I assume sighted is a verb - ed modifier which modifies the previous noun Dark Spots? or the presence of although would restrict sighted as a verb-ed modifier?

3. Consider the below two sentences:
a. Sunspots are visible as dark spots on the surface of the sun but have never been sighted on equator. (X but Y)
b. Sunspots appear on the surface of the sun as dark spots although never sighted at equator. (X although Y).

In sentence (a) can I say the parallelism rules allow the sunspots to be the subject in both X and Y clauses? If the answer is yes for the above question I assume then the same holds true for (b) also. Is my understanding correct?

While attempting this question I felt the construction X but Y is not appropriate (for I think X, but Y is the correct form) and hence eliminated option A and selected C thinking that the "sighted" is acting as verb-ed modifier for dark spots. However, I was wrong. Please could you elaborate your answer for my 3 queries above?
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong [#permalink] New post 27 Feb 2014, 05:09
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msln2008 wrote:


Hi e-gmat,

Please can you answer my queries below regarding the above OG question.

1. When compared to sighted at equator, sighted on equator sounds good and I feel we must say sighted on equator and not sighted at equator as equator is not a place like an area in a city. Please can you let me now if my understanding above is correct and can I eliminate an option based solely on this one?

2. Consider the sentence, Sunspots appear on the surface of the sun as dark spots although never sighted at equator. Can I assume sighted is a verb - ed modifier which modifies the previous noun Dark Spots? or the presence of although would restrict sighted as a verb-ed modifier?

3. Consider the below two sentences:
a. Sunspots are visible as dark spots on the surface of the sun but have never been sighted on equator. (X but Y)
b. Sunspots appear on the surface of the sun as dark spots although never sighted at equator. (X although Y).

In sentence (a) can I say the parallelism rules allow the sunspots to be the subject in both X and Y clauses? If the answer is yes for the above question I assume then the same holds true for (b) also. Is my understanding correct?

While attempting this question I felt the construction X but Y is not appropriate (for I think X, but Y is the correct form) and hence eliminated option A and selected C thinking that the "sighted" is acting as verb-ed modifier for dark spots. However, I was wrong. Please could you elaborate your answer for my 3 queries above?


Hi there,

1. I would say this is a question of usage rather than of application of logic. The sentence says that sunspots have been sighted on the surface of the sun but not on the poles or equator. So, I would pick 'sighted on' based on the context of the sentence rather than the meaning that you've applied.

For questions 2 and 3, the only correct use of 'although' that I've seen in such a context in official questions is when the meaning is completely unambiguous. For example, in the sentence "Although small, the conference room suits our needs," it is clear that "small" can refer only to the conference room. In a context in which it's possible for the modifier to refer to more than one item, it makes more sense to replace the modifier with a verb that is parallel to the verb in the previous clause, so that the meaning is absolutely clear.

I hope this helps.

Regards,
Meghna
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong [#permalink] New post 27 Feb 2014, 10:37
Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equater.
POE:
(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on -- HOLD ON
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun -- Changing meaning suggesting sun spots never have been sighted on the surface of sun.
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at -- although sighted : ed modifier modifying dark spots instead of sun spots.
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at -- having been sighted : ing modifier placed after comma unable to modify Sunspots and it having ing modifier is 99% wrong on gmat.
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on --- which modifier error modifying immediate noun surface.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong [#permalink] New post 27 Feb 2014, 11:01
My 2 cents :
msln2008 wrote:
Hi e-gmat,

Please can you answer my queries below regarding the above OG question.

1. When compared to sighted at equator, sighted on equator sounds good and I feel we must say sighted on equator and not sighted at equator as equator is not a place like an area in a city. Please can you let me now if my understanding above is correct and can I eliminate an option based solely on this one?

2. Consider the sentence, Sunspots appear on the surface of the sun as dark spots although never sighted at equator. Can I assume sighted is a verb - ed modifier which modifies the previous noun Dark Spots? or the presence of although would restrict sighted as a verb-ed modifier?
Ans: It is very common to get confused with presence of a modifier in subordinate conjunction marker. Even I also struggled initially to understand that we can place modifiers in this way e.g Although sighted at equator, sunspots are blah blah clause; thus, Always check whether it is a clause or a modifier introduced with subordinate conjunction or any transition word. You correctly identified that its an ed modifier not a verb. GOOD !!


3. Consider the below two sentences:
a. Sunspots are visible as dark spots on the surface of the sun but have never been sighted on equator. (X but Y) Correct
b. Sunspots appear on the surface of the sun as dark spots although never sighted at equator. (X although Y). Grammatically right/ Meaning wise wrong
here sighted is modifying dark spots instead of Sunspots. Although is just invisible here focus on only ed modifier and ed modifier modifies preceding noun

In sentence (a) can I say the parallelism rules allow the sunspots to be the subject in both X and Y clauses? Yes
If the answer is yes for the above question I assume then the same holds true for (b) also. Is my understanding correct? No

While attempting this question I felt the construction X but Y is not appropriate (for I think X, but Y is the correct form) and hence eliminated option A and selected C thinking that the "sighted" is acting as verb-ed modifier for dark spots. However, I was wrong. Please could you elaborate your answer for my 3 queries above?

But is a coordinating conjunction; it is one of the FANBOYS
Refer sentence structure and comma : Subject verb1, and Subject verb 2 [ clause 1, and clause 2 ]
Here Subject is common for both verbs no comma required: Subject verb1 and verb2 [ only one clause subject is common]

In option C You correctly identified the ed modifier, but meaning wise it should modify sunspots not dark spots: dark spots is describing how sunspots appear.


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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong [#permalink] New post 13 Mar 2014, 22:22
skim wrote:
Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equater.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on




This is Q14 of the OG 12th ed. (Q9 of the OG 11th ed) However:

1. I don't understand the OE of option (C), in that "sighted is not a complete verb".

2. I don't understand the OE of the top paragraph which states "The adjective visible is a complement and is parallel to the past particle sighted"

Would appreciate any form of explanation. Thanks


Although i know that comma which modifies the previous noun but there have been cases where it skips the previous noun

So what is wrong with option E,
Here which modifies dark spots and "have" also agrees in number.

Somebody Please explain.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong [#permalink] New post 14 Mar 2014, 00:16
abid1986 wrote:
skim wrote:
Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equater.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on




This is Q14 of the OG 12th ed. (Q9 of the OG 11th ed) However:

1. I don't understand the OE of option (C), in that "sighted is not a complete verb".

2. I don't understand the OE of the top paragraph which states "The adjective visible is a complement and is parallel to the past particle sighted"

Would appreciate any form of explanation. Thanks


Although i know that comma which modifies the previous noun but there have been cases where it skips the previous noun

So what is wrong with option E,
Here which modifies dark spots and "have" also agrees in number.

Somebody Please explain.


Hi, Let me give it a shot.

Let us check original sentence, which says "Sunspots have never been sighted on...."
First: element of contrast, such as but etc, is missing in option E.
Second: In E "Which HAVE" is modifying dark spots (plural) logically; it is referring to some specific dark spots which also do not appear on the Sun’s poles or equator, but as per original sentence author is saying Sunspots (not any specific dark spots) have never been appeared. Thus, option E is not going parallel in meaning with option A. Further as option A is grammatically correct it doesn't make sense to pick E.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong [#permalink] New post 14 Mar 2014, 10:15
Expert's post
abid1986 wrote:
skim wrote:
Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equater.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on




This is Q14 of the OG 12th ed. (Q9 of the OG 11th ed) However:

1. I don't understand the OE of option (C), in that "sighted is not a complete verb".

2. I don't understand the OE of the top paragraph which states "The adjective visible is a complement and is parallel to the past particle sighted"

Would appreciate any form of explanation. Thanks


Although i know that comma which modifies the previous noun but there have been cases where it skips the previous noun

So what is wrong with option E,
Here which modifies dark spots and "have" also agrees in number.

Somebody Please explain.


Dear Abid,

Thank you for posting your question here.

As Piyush has correctly pointed out, the contrast in the intended meaning of the sentence is missing in option E. While this is enough to eliminate option E, this choice also appears to have a meaning issue. If I were to restate the meaning of the original sentence, I would say that the author's main point is that sunspots have been sighted on the Sun's surface, but they've never been sighted on the Sun's poles or equator. The author doesn't really want to say that dark spots have never been sighted in certain areas. The contrast in the sentence is about where sunspots appear and where they don't. This meaning isn't clear in option E, in which "which" seems to refer to "dark spots" rather than "sunspots".

I hope this helps to clarify your doubt!

Regards,
Meghna
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Re: Sunspots [#permalink] New post 18 Mar 2014, 20:29
bigoyal wrote:
I'll vote for C.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on - "are visible" and "have never been" are not parallel.
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun - "dark spots that never have been sighted" sounds awkward and changes the meaning.
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at - "sunspots .. appear..." and "sunspots.. sighted.." are parallel construction
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at - "although never having been" sounds awkward and wordy. Also not parallel to "appear as"
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on - same error as D



Grammatically C is a Blunder.
Although should be followed by a Subordinate Clause or a Full clause that has not happened in C and D.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong [#permalink] New post 25 May 2014, 01:40
Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equater.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on

POE:
1. Remember in GMAT according to OG,Although should followed by a subordinate(i.e. dependent) clause.
Option C & D break this rule,so they are out.
2. in Option E, Which modify surface and so distorted the meaning,so this option is also out.
3. in Option B That modifies dark spots so again distorted meaning,i.e. meaning looks like dark spots never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun which is not intended meaning.

so Correct answer is Option A
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong   [#permalink] 25 May 2014, 01:40
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