Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and

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Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2010, 07:21
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Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste cells, each of them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore.

(A) them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore

(B) them that have fingerlike projections that poke through an opening located at the top of the taste bud, which they call the taste pore

(C) which has fingerlike projections poking through the opening, called the taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud

(D) which having fingerlike projections that poke through an opening, which is called the taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud

(E) which have fingerlike projections that are poking through an opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore

[Reveal] Spoiler:
can some one explain the difference between option A and C? ( each of them vs each of which? )

'each of them' refers to object ( in this case, onion shaped structures?)
'each of which' referes to subjects ( in this case, taste buds?)
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by pqhai on 12 Dec 2013, 10:46, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2010, 08:37
Hi,

In this 'each of them' refers to taste cells.

Regds
Sony
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2010, 08:49
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ugimba wrote:
Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste cells, each of them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore.

(A) them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore

(B) them that have fingerlike projections that poke through an opening located at the top of the taste bud, which they call the taste pore

(C) which has fingerlike projections poking through the opening, called the taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud

(D) which having fingerlike projections that poke through an opening, which is called the taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud

(E) which have fingerlike projections that are poking through an opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore

can some one explain the difference between option A and C? ( each of them vs each of which? )

'each of them' refers to object ( in this case, onion shaped structures?)
'each of which' referes to subjects ( in this case, taste buds?)

if you use "each of them" you have a comma slice, since you join two independent clauses by a comma.
On the other hand using "each of which" you have a relative pronoun so no problem

The following is a problem from OG, if I remember well GMAC says that option E is a run-on

The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, were connected by a complex regional system of roads.
A. with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, were
B. with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each,
C. of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of up to 600 rooms, each that had been
D. of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of up to 600 rooms and with each
E. of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of up to 600 rooms each had been

Last edited by mikeCoolBoy on 26 Jan 2010, 11:34, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2010, 09:36
mikeCoolBoy wrote:
if you use "each of them" you have a comma slice, since you join two independent clauses by a comma.
In the other hand using "each of which" you have a relative pronoun so no problem

thanks! that makes sense now. I though it was a modifier(after the comma either in A or C) describing taste buds, but If I see carefully, It can't be modifier since it has Sub + complete verb ..so I guess "each of which" makes better sense,but can we still call "each of which" as a relative pronoun?
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2010, 15:26
I like to think of "which" as a setup for extra information. Here it expands the scope of the first clause.
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2010, 23:08
I'll go for C as according to me A has a modifier problem as in A "them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore " it seems that top of the test bud called pore but actually the opening should be termed as pore.
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2010, 06:58
As many of you picked, The OA is C..

Thanks.
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2010, 10:28
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mikeCoolBoy thank you !
I have understood why I was wrong. ( I took A).

Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste cells, each of them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore.
A. them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore- each of them is wrong here.
B. them that have fingerlike projections that poke through an opening located at the top of the taste bud, which they call the taste pore - who they ?
C. which has fingerlike projections poking through the opening, called the taste pore, located at the top of taste bud - OK
D. which having fingerlike projections that poke through an opening, which is called the taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud
E. which have fingerlike projections that are poking through an opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2010, 10:44
shrive555 wrote:
C

prove it!
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2010, 12:57
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Pkit wrote:
shrive555 wrote:
C

prove it!

I think I can prove why C is the correct answer and why we can't use "each of them".
Simple reason: How to correctly use subgroup modifiers:
Three correct uses: "Some of Which Were", "Some of Them", and "Some". Only "Some of Which..." take a verb form.
Now you can replace Some with any other indefinite pronoun, for example, let us take "Each" in place of "Some"
According to the correct usage of the subgroup modifier, we can clearly see that "each of them has" is incorrect when it should be " each of them" without the verb.
On the other hand, ""Each of Which Has" is correctly used.
This is clealry explained in the Manhattan SC Book.
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2010, 21:30
shekharvineet wrote:
Pkit wrote:
shrive555 wrote:
C

prove it!

I think I can prove why C is the correct answer and why we can't use "each of them".
Simple reason: How to correctly use subgroup modifiers:
Three correct uses: "Some of Which Were", "Some of Them", and "Some". Only "Some of Which..." take a verb form.
Now you can replace Some with any other indefinite pronoun, for example, let us take "Each" in place of "Some"
According to the correct usage of the subgroup modifier, we can clearly see that "each of them has" is incorrect when it should be " each of them" without the verb.
On the other hand, ""Each of Which Has" is correctly used.
This is clealry explained in the Manhattan SC Book.

And you proved it...

Thanks
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2011, 12:42
Pkit wrote:
mikeCoolBoy thank you !
I have understood why I was wrong. ( I took A).

Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste cells, each of them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore.
A. them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore- each of them is wrong here.
B. them that have fingerlike projections that poke through an opening located at the top of the taste bud, which they call the taste pore - who they ?
C. which has fingerlike projections poking through the opening, called the taste pore, located at the top of taste bud - OK
D. which having fingerlike projections that poke through an opening, which is called the taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud
E. which have fingerlike projections that are poking through an opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore

Yeah I agree with your explanations..
C is the correct one
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2011, 03:00
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If I use my ear, I think

'each of them' refers to taste buds
'each of which' refers to taste cells - which fits with the intended reference

Along with this the position of "called the taste pore" is also determining the correctness of any sentence.

So I'll also go with 'C'
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2011, 04:30
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+1 C

Misplaced modifier. "called the taste pore" should be next to "opening" to avoid ambiguity.
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2011, 18:57
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ugimba wrote:
Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste cells, each of them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore.

(A) them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore

(C) which has fingerlike projections poking through the opening, called the taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud

can some one explain the difference between option A and C? ( each of them vs each of which? )

'each of them' refers to object ( in this case, onion shaped structures?)
'each of which' referes to subjects ( in this case, taste buds?)

I remember how to use subgroup modifier in MGMAT Sentence Correction pg 236. Use "part of them" never go with verb in active voice. Only "part of which" can go with verb in active voice. I should give you example in this book.

Right: This model explains all known subatomic particles, SOME OF WHICH WERE only recently discovered.

Right: This model explains all known subatomic particles, SOME OF THEM only recently discovered.

Right: This model explains all known subatomic particles, SOME only recently discovered.

PART here can be SANAM group.

Wrong: This model explains all known subatomic particles, OF WHICH SOME WERE only recently discovered.

Wrong: This model explains all known subatomic particles, SOME OF THEM WHICH WERE only recently discovered.

Wrong: This model explains all known subatomic particles, SOME OF WHICH only recently discovered.

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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and [#permalink]

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02 May 2014, 05:40
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and [#permalink]

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07 May 2014, 21:53
Guys,

I'm still not clear.
I picked A instead of c.
Is there a meaning issue also?
Kindly elaborate.
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and [#permalink]

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19 May 2014, 11:03
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DesiGmat wrote:
Guys,

I'm still not clear.
I picked A instead of c.
Is there a meaning issue also?
Kindly elaborate.

Hi DesiGmat,

Let’s first understand the structure and meaning of the sentence.

Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste cells,
o each of them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore.

MEANING

• So, the sentence tells us about the taste buds. It states that the taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste cells.
• Each of these cells has finger like projections poking through an opening.
o This opening is located at the top of the taste bud. It is called the taste pore.

There are three modifiers in the second clause of the given sentence.

1. Verb-ing Modifier ‘poking’: It modifies ‘fingerlike projections’. It tells us that the fingerlike projections poke through the opening.

2. Verb-ed Modifier ‘located’: It modifies ‘the opening’. It tells us that the opening is located at the top of the taste bud.

3. Verb-ed Modifier ‘called’: It modifies ‘the taste bud’. It tells us that the taste bud is called the taste pore. This is illogical. Why would taste bud be called ‘taste pore’? Also, the opening can be called a taste pore since that makes more sense.

Now, let's look at the options:

A.) them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore

• This option has two errors:

1.) The modifier ‘called the taste pore’ is misplaced. It is incorrectly modifying ‘taste bud’. This gives an illogical meaning that the taste bud are called the taste pore. Logically, the modifier should modify ‘the opening’.

2.) The pronoun ‘them’ has two possible antecedents: taste cells and taste buds.

B.) them that have fingerlike projections that poke through an opening located at the top of the taste bud, which they call the taste pore

• This option has three errors:

1.) The pronoun ‘them’ has two possible antecedents: taste cells and taste buds.

2.) The singular subject ‘each of them’ does not agree with the plural verb ‘have’.

3.) The relative pronoun modifier ‘which’ incorrectly modifies ‘the taste bud’. The taste bud is not called taste pore. Logically the modifier should modify the opening.

C.) which has fingerlike projections poking through the opening, called the taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud

• This option removes both the errors from the original sentence.

1.) It replaces the pronoun ‘them’ with ‘which’. The modifier ‘which’ can only modify the immediate preceding noun. In this case it modifies ‘taste cells’.

2.) It places the modifier ‘called the taste pore’ right next to ‘the opening’. Now, the sentence conveys the meaning that the opening is called the taste pore.

D.) which having fingerlike projections that poke through an opening, which is called the taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud

1. The subject ‘each of which’ does not have a verb. ‘having’ cannot act as the main verb in a clause.

E.) which have fingerlike projections that are poking through an opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore

• This option has two errors:

1.) The singular subject ‘each of which’ does not agree with the plural verb ‘have’.

2.) The modifier ‘called the taste pore’ is misplaced. It is incorrectly modifying ‘taste bud’. Logically it should modify ‘the opening’. (Same error as option A has)

Hope this helps!
Manyu
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2014, 00:52
Dear All,

I need one clarification regardin the subgroup modifier....please could you hlep.

In the MGMAT there is this example in page no 240.

Right: This model explains all known subatomic particles, some of which were only recently discovered.

the associated example includes.,

Wrong: This model explains all known subatomic particles, some of which only recently discovered.

I understood that WERE is a must when using the which construction.

In the page no 250 MGMAT has a similar sentence that is correct according to MGMAT but the sentence is lacking WERE.

The houses on the canal street, many of which had been damaged in the storm, looked abandoned.

My question,

Is it compulsory to use the word WERE when referring to subgroup while the using the WHICH construction.

Please could you help me with this.

tuanquang269 wrote:
ugimba wrote:
Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and 100 taste cells, each of them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore.

(A) them has fingerlike projections poking through the opening located at the top of the taste bud called the taste pore

(C) which has fingerlike projections poking through the opening, called the taste pore, located at the top of the taste bud

can some one explain the difference between option A and C? ( each of them vs each of which? )

'each of them' refers to object ( in this case, onion shaped structures?)
'each of which' referes to subjects ( in this case, taste buds?)

I remember how to use subgroup modifier in MGMAT Sentence Correction pg 236. Use "part of them" never go with verb in active voice. Only "part of which" can go with verb in active voice. I should give you example in this book.

Right: This model explains all known subatomic particles, SOME OF WHICH WERE only recently discovered.

Right: This model explains all known subatomic particles, SOME OF THEM only recently discovered.

Right: This model explains all known subatomic particles, SOME only recently discovered.

PART here can be SANAM group.

Wrong: This model explains all known subatomic particles, OF WHICH SOME WERE only recently discovered.

Wrong: This model explains all known subatomic particles, SOME OF THEM WHICH WERE only recently discovered.

Wrong: This model explains all known subatomic particles, SOME OF WHICH only recently discovered.

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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2014, 06:21
shriramvelamuri wrote:
Dear All,

I need one clarification regardin the subgroup modifier....please could you hlep.

In the MGMAT there is this example in page no 240.

Right: This model explains all known subatomic particles, some of which were only recently discovered.

the associated example includes.,

Wrong: This model explains all known subatomic particles, some of which only recently discovered.

I understood that WERE is a must when using the which construction.

In the page no 250 MGMAT has a similar sentence that is correct according to MGMAT but the sentence is lacking WERE.

The houses on the canal street, many of which had been damaged in the storm, looked abandoned.

My question,

Is it compulsory to use the word WERE when referring to subgroup while the using the WHICH construction.

Hi! While I have not heard of this term subgroup modifier , but nevertheless, whether we need to use were or are or had been is a tense issue and not a modifier issue.

For example in the sentence: The houses on the canal street, many of which had been damaged in the storm, looked abandoned .

This is a classical case of where two events happened in the past:
i) Houses looked abandoned
ii) Many of the houses were abandoned

However, ii) happened at an unspecified time before i) and so, ii) is expressed as past perfect tense.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Past perfect tense, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: Taste buds are onion-shaped structures with between 50 and   [#permalink] 29 Dec 2014, 06:21

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