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The brains of identical twins are genetically identical.

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The brains of identical twins are genetically identical. [#permalink] New post 12 Feb 2008, 00:58
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The brains of identical twins are genetically identical. When only one of a pair of identical twins is a schizophrenic, certain areas of the affected twin’s brain are smaller than corresponding areas in the brain of the unaffected twin. No such differences are found when neither twin is schizophrenic. Therefore, this discovery provides definitive evidence that schizophrenia is caused by damage to the physical structure of the brain.
If the statements on which the conclusion above is based are all true, each of the following could be true EXCEPT:
(A) People who lack a genetic susceptibility for the disease will not develop schizophrenia.
(B) Medications can control most of the symptoms of schizophrenia in most patients but will never be able to cure it.
(C) The brains of schizophrenics share many of the characteristics found in those of people without the disorder.
(D) It will eventually be possible to determine whether or not someone will develop schizophrenia on the basis of genetic information alone.
(E) Brain abnormalities associated with schizophrenia are the result of childhood viral infections that inhibit the development of brain cells.
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Re: CR (brains) [#permalink] New post 12 Feb 2008, 11:13
(C) The brains of schizophrenics share many of the characteristics found in those of people without the disorder.

If the statements on which the conclusion above is based are all true, each of the following could be true EXCEPT:

We are looking for the answer that cannot be true based on the premises of the conclusion.

The premises are:

Brains of identical twins are genetically identical.
When one is schizo and the other is not the affected twins brain in smaller in some places.
No differences are found when neither twin is schizo.

If all of these things are true then it is clear that a schizophrenic's brain is different than someone who is not.

Statement C suggest that a schizophrenic's brain is similar.
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Re: CR (brains) [#permalink] New post 12 Feb 2008, 22:48
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The brains of identical twins are genetically identical. When only one of a pair of identical twins is a schizophrenic.....

(D) It will eventually be possible to determine whether or not someone will develop schizophrenia on the basis of genetic information alone. - it cannot be true. the passage states that schizophrenia can be developed in only one of a pair. Therefore, genetic information alone is not sufficient to determine whether or not someone will develop schizophrenia.
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Re: CR (brains) [#permalink] New post 13 Feb 2008, 08:22
walker wrote:
The brains of identical twins are genetically identical. When only one of a pair of identical twins is a schizophrenic.....

(D) It will eventually be possible to determine whether or not someone will develop schizophrenia on the basis of genetic information alone. - it cannot be true. the passage states that schizophrenia can be developed in only one of a pair. Therefore, genetic information alone is not sufficient to determine whether or not someone will develop schizophrenia.


I think your right.

I hate the EXCEPT problems because I went through D and ruled it out because it was not true. I have to constantly stop and think what I'm looking for with each question. It's like they're playing Jedi mind tricks on me or something :?
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Re: CR (brains) [#permalink] New post 13 Feb 2008, 12:23
A
Conclusion: "discovery provides definitive evidence that schizophrenia is caused by damage to the physical structure of the brain."

Goal: Identify which of the statements CANNOT be true


az780 wrote:
The brains of identical twins are genetically identical. When only one of a pair of identical twins is a schizophrenic, certain areas of the affected twin’s brain are smaller than corresponding areas in the brain of the unaffected twin. No such differences are found when neither twin is schizophrenic. Therefore, this discovery provides definitive evidence that schizophrenia is caused by damage to the physical structure of the brain.
If the statements on which the conclusion above is based are all true, each of the following could be true EXCEPT:
(A) People who lack a genetic susceptibility for the disease will not develop schizophrenia. This is the correct answer; since the schiz is caused by "damage to the physical structure of the brain", it can result from a accident which damages the physical structure of the brain. Genetics is one cause but not the only cause.
(B) Medications can control most of the symptoms of schizophrenia in most patients but will never be able to cure it. This is not discussed in the passage but can definitely be true...
(C) The brains of schizophrenics share many of the characteristics found in those of people without the disorder. This is stated in the passage...
(D) It will eventually be possible to determine whether or not someone will develop schizophrenia on the basis of genetic information alone. Not discussed in the argument...
(E) Brain abnormalities associated with schizophrenia are the result of childhood viral infections that inhibit the development of brain cells.not discussed but can be true
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Re: CR (brains) [#permalink] New post 13 Feb 2008, 12:54
I would go for A,
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Re: CR (brains) [#permalink] New post 13 Feb 2008, 13:16
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jay02 wrote:
(A) People who lack a genetic susceptibility for the disease will not develop schizophrenia. This is the correct answer; since the schiz is caused by "damage to the physical structure of the brain", it can result from a accident which damages the physical structure of the brain. Genetics is one cause but not the only cause.


I think A is wrong. There is my logic.

We cannot define a "genetic susceptibility" term from the argument and we don't know relationship between twins in the argument and "genetic susceptibility". We can assume that all twins in the argument had "genetic susceptibility". In this case the argument does not contain any information about "genetic non-susceptibility" people. Therefore, A is possible.
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Re: CR (brains) [#permalink] New post 13 Feb 2008, 23:54
(A) People who lack a genetic susceptibility for the disease will not develop schizophrenia.[Eliminate It]
(B) Medications can control most of the symptoms of schizophrenia in most patients but will never be able to cure it. [Curing the disease is irrelevant – eliminate it]
(C) The brains of schizophrenics share many of the characteristics found in those of people without the disorder. [Hold it]
(D) It will eventually be possible to determine whether or not someone will develop schizophrenia on the basis of genetic information alone. [Hold it]
(E) Brain abnormalities associated with schizophrenia are the result of childhood viral infections that inhibit the development of brain cells. [strengthens the conclusion – eliminate it]

Answer:: D
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Re: CR (brains) [#permalink] New post 14 Feb 2008, 02:32
B
Conclusion is a causal one.
hanumayamma wrote:
Curing the disease is irrelevant – eliminate it]


Why must eliminate the "irrelevant"? I think the irrelevant answer must be true in "COULD BE TRUE EXEPT"

B wrong because B says that "medications" will be alternate cause of "schizophrenia". B denies the role of "the damage to the physical structure of the brain", so B is inconsistent with conclusion. => B could not be True or could be true EXEPT.



A wrong because A agrees with the conclusion: "damage to..." is a cause of schizophrenia"
A: develop schizophrenia ---> not genetic. Or gen is not indication of development of schizophrenia. So A insist with conclusion. OUT

C wrong, the same as A
C: says disorder is not a cause of schizophrenia, so it inssts with conclusion

D wrong because D could be true, the same reason as Walker said
walker wrote:
The brains of identical twins are genetically identical. When only one of a pair of identical twins is a schizophrenic.....

(D) It will eventually be possible to determine whether or not someone will develop schizophrenia on the basis of genetic information alone. - it cannot be true. the passage states that schizophrenia can be developed in only one of a pair. Therefore, genetic information alone is not sufficient to determine whether or not someone will develop schizophrenia


E wrong because E is a rephrephase of conclusion
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Re: CR (brains) [#permalink] New post 14 Feb 2008, 04:06
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sondenso wrote:
B
.....
D wrong because D could be true, the same reason as Walker said....


I actually said D cannot be true and answer is D. :)

sondenso wrote:
B wrong because B says that "medications" will be alternate cause of "schizophrenia". B denies the role of "the damage to the physical structure of the brain", so B is inconsistent with conclusion. => B could not be True or could be true EXEPT.


(B) Medications can control most of the symptoms of schizophrenia in most patients but will never be able to cure it.

The argument does not mention medications. Therefore,
Can medications control most of the symptoms of schizophrenia? We don't know. Why not?
Will medications never be able to cure schizophrenia? We don't know. Maybe it is even impossible to recover "the damage to the physical structure of the brain". It is also can be true.
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Re: CR (brains) [#permalink] New post 14 Feb 2008, 05:37
I think D is answer for the following reason.

If the brain of identical twins are genetically the same, and you COULD determine if they will get schizo from their genetic information then that would mean that if you determined one twin would get it then the other one would have to get it also beacuse the have the exact same genetic make up. But since its possible for only one of the pair to develop it then this CANNOT be true.
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Re: CR (brains) [#permalink] New post 14 Feb 2008, 06:01
I agree with D. Schiz is caused by physical damage, therefore you cant tell whether it will be a result of genes
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Re: CR (brains) [#permalink] New post 14 Feb 2008, 06:46
D makes sense but how would you deny A being the right answer?

(A) People who lack a genetic susceptibility for the disease will not develop schizophrenia.

I think A is not true too. From the argument we can say that People who lack the genetic susceptibility can still have schizophrenia, so A is not true and that makes it the right answer.
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Re: CR (brains) [#permalink] New post 14 Feb 2008, 06:56
maverick101 wrote:
D makes sense but how would you deny A being the right answer?

(A) People who lack a genetic susceptibility for the disease will not develop schizophrenia.

I think A is not true too. From the argument we can say that People who lack the genetic susceptibility can still have schizophrenia, so A is not true and that makes it the right answer.


The argument only tells us that twins are genetically identical and one twin can get schizo withoug the other. It doesnt address genetic susceptibility.

ex. A set of twins could lack the genetic susceptibility and neither could get schizo.

Your assuming that if one of the twins does get schizo, they are getting it because they are genetically suceptible. Neither could be genetically suceptible and one could suffer brain damage at 5 leading to schizo later in life.
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Re: CR (brains) [#permalink] New post 14 Feb 2008, 15:02
Hi sondenso,


True. I too ran into the dilemma as of why irrelevant answer choices standout for EXCEPT question. One way to overcome the dilemma is re-phrase the EXCEPT question:

Given:

Conclusion: Therefore, this discovery provides definitive evidence that schizophrenia is caused by damage to the physical structure of the brain.

If the statements on which the conclusion above is based are all true, each of the following could be true EXCEPT:

Rephrase: If the statements on which the conclusion above is based are all true, which of the following couldn’t be true?

Now, let’s dive into choices B and D – most relevant ones: D stands-out and more appealing the conclusion than B.

(B) Medications can control most of the symptoms of schizophrenia in most patients but will never be able to cure it. [Curing the disease is irrelevant – eliminate it]

(D) It will eventually be possible to determine whether or not someone will develop schizophrenia on the basis of genetic information alone. [Hold it]

If none of the answer choices except irrelevant one appealing the conclusion, then I will choose irrelevant one.

Thanks
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Re: CR (brains) [#permalink] New post 14 Feb 2008, 17:06
D more than 3 mins.
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Re: CR (brains) [#permalink] New post 14 Feb 2008, 17:23
walker wrote:
I actually said D cannot be true and answer is D.


Hi Walker,

I agree with all of you that D is choice.

D 100% disagrees with the conclusion and the second premise of the argument. So D could not be true.

For B, yesterday i forgot the term "the symptom of..."
Re: CR (brains)   [#permalink] 14 Feb 2008, 17:23
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